I organised a symposium for the IPS/ASP meetings this August, and would like to condense my remarks to that forum here. The symposium, "Primate Research In-and Ex-Situ: Making the Connection," brought together a handful of people who have studied primates both in captivity and in nature. The purpose of the symposium was to encourage the development of research programs in more than one setting, thereby giving students broader training, and promoting collaborative studies of the same species or problem in different arenas. Each of the symposium participants illustrated these approaches: 1) Rob Horwich, of Community Conservation Consultants, spoke on "Primate Conservation: a Field/Captive Synthesis"; 2) Joe Erwin, of Diagnon Corporation, talked about "Coordination of Career Commitments to Primate Conservation and Care"; 3) Kathy Rasmussen, from the National Institutes of Health Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, addressed "Laboratory and Field Studies of Nonhuman Primates: Complementary Approaches to Understanding a Species' Adaptive Range"; 4) Sam Wasser from the Center for Wildlife Conservation, Woodland Park Zoo and the University of Washington, explained "The Application of Non-invasive Faecal Hormone and DNA Analyses to Wildlife Conservation"; and 5) Don Lindburg, of the Zoological Society of San Diego's Center for the Reproduction of Endangered Species, described "Experimental Reintroductions as a Conservation Strategy".
We discussed our work on both sides of the invisible barrier that sometimes polarises primatologists into members of the "field conservation" and "captive conservation" camps. Each speaker showed how connections between work in the field and in man-made environments can increase the effectiveness of research and conservation programs. When we integrate our understanding of how a species "is" in nature and how it "can be" in human-altered environments, we will improve our ability to make informed decisions and find creative solutions to the conservation problems, such as humane wildlife management, which face us now and will continue to face us well into the next century. In a future issue of "African Primates", I plan to discuss this subject more in an article on applied conditioned taste aversion.
Beyond data, however, we need dialogue, particularly given the diversity of our profession. For example, in the industrialised world, while some advocate rights for great apes, others are dismayed that their laboratory research makes them vulnerable to litigation and, in some cases, vandalism. Meanwhile, far outnumbering these are the millions in the developing world who do not enjoy our level of socio-economic buffering from the environment, and often view animals as meat, and forest as firewood or foreign exchange.
How do we promote conservation between such disparate views of reality? The best way I know is to have some personal understanding of each. This reduces identification with a single perspective. It should also demonstrate the fallacy that environmental conservation and misanthropy are compatible. Unless we attend to the needs of those who have inherited most of the remaining biodiversity on this planet--the citizens of the developing world--wildlife conservation will fail.
Those who control financial and animal resources are encouraging us to adopt a different conservation ethic, specifically one that favours 1) collaborative proposals, 2) project initiation by scientists in the species' range country, 3) education of in-country scientists, and their assumption of projects within a finite period of time, and 4) programs tailored to the socio-economic and political conditions of the region. These guidelines, which discourage solitary, unidimensional research, in my view, are a step forward.
In one of the talks during the Congress, conservation was defined as the combined tasks of education, management and protection. Some of the tools listed for accomplishing these three tasks were coordination, education and communication. At some point, those three tools are reduced to communication. I think this newsletter and its counterparts are excellent vehicles towards improved communication.
Debra L. Forthman
Abstract: Since the early 1990s, the development of a trinational protected area in southeastern Cameroon, nortrh eastern Congo and southwestern Central African Republic has made good progress. These 5,000 km2 of forest are threatened primarily by commercial logging, mining, commercial safari hunting, poaching and subsistence use by local communities. Commercial logging has led to the most extensive destruction, both directly and indirectly. Especially along the roads, illegal and commercial hunting is having disasterous effects. Most hunting is done by snares. Primary targets are duikers, antelope, porcupines, red forest hog and monkeys. The Wildlife Conservation Society is conducting research in the Lobéké, Cameroon, area and is initiating and developing programmes of community involvement in conservation.
Les grandes forêts tropicales humides qui recouvrent le sud-est du Cameroun, le nord-est du Congo et le sud-ouest de la RCA possèdent une richesse biologique extraordinaire, surtout en ce qui concerne les grands mammifères. Au début des années 90, la Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) et le Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF) ont proposé la mise en place dans cette zone d'un projet de conservation trinational. Suite à cette initiative, le gouvernement de la RCA a créé la Réserve de Dzanga-Sangha/Parc National de Dzanga-Ndoki en 1990; le gouvernement Congolais de son côté a créé le Parc National Nouabalé-Ndoki in 1993, et très récemment la Réserve de Lobéké a été provisoirement délimitée par le Cameroun (Fig. 1). Tous ces efforts ont permis de réunir près de 5,000 km2 de forêts protégées dans l'écosystème trinational. En outre, 5,000 km2 autour de ces réserves ont été réservés dans le souci de laisser en place les ressources de base pour une exploitation soutenable tout en protégeant la diversité biologique de la zone.
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Figure 1. Carte de la Reserve de Lobéké, Cameroon.
Les forêts de la région trinationale ne font pas seulement l'objet d'initiatives de conservation, mais subissent aussi des pressions du fait de l'exploitation forestière et minière, de la chasse safari, du braconnage, de la capture d'animaux vivants (particulièrement les chimpanzés, les gorilles et les perroquets gris), et des besoins économiques et de subsistance des communautés locales. Les activités des entreprises forestières dans la région ont une grande importance pour plusieurs raisons:
* Ces entreprises favorisent souvent l'immigration des familles en quête d'emploi, ce qui augmente la pression sur les ressources forestières;
* La plupart de ces gens, souvent sans aucune sécurité d'emploi, restent dans la région et se prêtent aux activités illégales telles que le braconnage;
* De nouvelles routes et pistes de débardage sont ouvertes à la recherche des essences exploitables, facilitant ainsi l'accès à des zones préalablement inaccessibles;
* Les employés des entreprises forestières participent eux-mêmes aux activités de braconnage, que ce soit en plaçant des pièges aux alentours des camps et des chantiers, en fournissant des armes et des munitions aux chasseurs, ou en transportant la viande de chasse vers les centres commerciaux.
Au sud-est du Cameroun, près de 85% de la viande de chasse abattue dans les campements des braconniers sont évacués par des véhicules des entreprises forestières en direction soit des chantiers, soit, dans la plupart des cas, des centres urbains où la demande pour la viande est insatiable. Les chauffeurs qui transportent les grumes de la SNBS (Kabo, Congo), de la CIB (Pokola, Congo) et de la SIBAF (Kika, Cameroun) jouent les rôles les plus importants dans ce commerce.
Tout récemment, des efforts ont été déployés pour collecter des informations précises sur le commerce en viande de chasse, de ses impacts sur les populations de faune dans la région trinationale, et les façons éventuelles de le contrôler.
Le projet Nouabalé-Ndoki de WCS suit depuis plusieurs années le commerce en viande de chasse le long de la rivière Sangha au nord de Ouesso. Malgré ces efforts, le trafic aérien de viande entre Ouesso et Brazzaville continue et Ouesso reste encore un centre important pour le commerce du gibier. Dans la Réserve de Dzanga-Sangha, l'équipe du WWF suit l'impact des communautés locales sur les ressources forestières, avec un accent particulier sur le commerce du gibier. Elle a constaté qu'une grande proportion des immigrés dans la zone de Bayanga, arrivés à l'origine pour chercher du travail lié à l'exploitation forestière, se sont tournés vers la chasse comme source de revenus alternative.
Dans la région de la Lobéké, au sud-est du Cameroun, les chercheurs de WCS ont constaté que les chantiers forestiers situés à Béla et Libongo sur la rivière Shagha et à Kika et Mouloundou sur la rivière Ngoko constituent des centres importants pour des opérations de capture et transport de viande de chasse. A Béla, où les activités d'exploitation forestière sont interrompues depuis 1992, une bonne partie des travailleurs est demeurée sur place à cause des rumeurs concernant la reprise des activités. En l'absence d'emploi, la majorité de ces personnes se sont lancée dans le braconnage pour avoir un moyen de subsistance, évacuant la viande par la rivière Shangha vers la RCA, par voie terrestre à travers le Cameroun, ou encore vers Ouesso. Les campements de braconniers sont très fréquents le long des routes principales vers Libongo et Kika. Parfois, ils ravitaillent les chantiers, mais plus souvent la viande est transportée à bord des grumiers en direction des grands centres de population au Cameroun.
La route qui bifurque à l'angle du sud-est du Cameroun (vers Ouesso) est particulièrement importante. En 1993-94, période pendant laquelle la route était fermée à la circulation, la pression de la chasse illicite fut considérablement réduite dans la zone. Mais en 1994 la route a été réouverte afin de faciliter l'évacuation du bois des entreprises forestières travaillant au nord-Congo. Les villages de Socambo et Makwanda sont devenus des centres d'activité importants grâce au passage régulier de bois, de passagers et de viande de chasse qui sortent du Congo par bac sur la Sangha. Mongokélé est un centre de braconnage depuis longtemps, servant de point de transit pour la viande qui descend la rivière Ngoko jusqu'à Ouesso. La réouverture de la nouvelle route a fourni encore une option aux commerçants de viande. Notre étude a détecté le long de la route la présence de nombreux campements de braconniers qui n'existaient pas en 1993. Le cas de Djembé, campement situé sur la Sangha à l'endroit où le bois congolais en provenance de Kabo transite à destination de Douala par la route, est plus ou moins identique. Bien que le niveau de braconnage apparaisse être moins intense qu'à Mongokélé, la proximité de l'aire protégée proposée de Lobéké est inquiétante.
Pour mieux comprendre la dynamique du commerce du gibier dans la zone, l'équipe de WCS a recensé les campements de braconniers. Environ 95% des chasseurs sont des Camerounais originaires d'autres régions du pays. La majorité (75%) sont d'anciens travailleurs d'entreprises forestières opérant dans la région. Il viennent dans la zone de Lobéké à la recherche d'opportunités économiques qui ne sont plus disponibles chez eux. Au sud-est du pays, ils retrouvent une forêt riche en ressources naturelles où la faible mise en vigueur de la loi crée un climat très propice à l'exploitation incontrôlée. Beaucoup de chasseurs ont adopté un système saisonnier par lequel ils se déplacent au sud-est après avoir planté leurs cultures dans leur village d'origine. On constate aussi une augmentation marquée du nombre de campements de braconniers pendant la fermeture de la saison de chasse safari à partir du mois de juin (les chasseurs safari tolérant les braconniers dans leurs zones d'activité).
La chasse au piège constitue la technique principale utilisée par les chasseurs de la région, qui détiennent entre 50 et 300 pièges chacun. Cette pratique entraîne souvent des pertes, puisque plus de 10% des animaux capturés pourrissent avant d'être récupérés par les chasseurs (une étude menée par ECOFAC au Dja indique que ce chiffre peut atteindre 30%). La chasse est très destructive: elle n'est pas du tout sélective en termes d'âge, de sexe ou d'espèces chassées. Les résultats initiaux de notre étude démontrent que les espèces les plus communément tuées par les chasseurs sont, par ordre d'abondance:
* Les céphalophes tels Cephalophus callipygus (75% d'animaux capturés), Cephalophus dorsalis et Cephalophus monticola;
* le porc-épic (Atherus sp.);
* le potamochère (Potamocherus porcus);
* les singes tels que Cercocebus albigena, Cercocebus galeritus et Colobus guereza.
Suivant l'initiative des équipes de gestion de Dzanga-Sangha et de Nouabalé-Ndoki, l'équipe du WCS à Lobéké continuera à quantifier la chasse de gibier dans le sud-est du Cameroun. Il est toutefois évident que certaines actions devront être menées dans un proche avenir pour limiter la chasse dans la zone. Sinon, il existe un fort risque de dégradation à long terme des ressources de base. En abordant ce problème, le personnel de chacune des aires protégées et des ONG partenaires doivent faire des efforts concertés pour coordonner leurs recherches et leurs activités de surveillance, pour favoriser dans la mesure du possible la mise en application des lois sur la faune, et pour chercher une nouvelle stratégie pour décourager la chasse illégale. Pour sa part, le personnel du site de Lobéké a programmé des visites à Dzanga-Sangha et à Nouabalé-Ndoki dans un proche avenir dans l'espoir de renforcer la collaboration entre ses efforts et ceux introduits dans le sud-est du Cameroun. Selon toute probabilité, un conservateur du MINEF sera installé à Lobéké dans les prochains mois à venir.
L'équipe de Lobéké va au-delà des mesures classiques pour aider à la conservation de l'écosystème forestier du sud-est. Elle a initié un programme actif de collaboration avec la population locale basée sur la conservation des ressources de la région. Les communautés de la zone dépendent entièrement des ressources forestières pour leur subsistance et pour leurs activités économiques. Le niveau de chasse abusif par des individus et des organismes extérieurs à la région met en cause leur avenir. C'est ainsi que la WCS a trouvé en partenaire tout à fait concerné pour l'assister dans la conservation à long terme des ressources naturelles de la région.
Léonard Usongo & Brian Curran
WCS Cameroun, B.P. 817, Yaounde, Cameroun, Fax: 237-20-2645
[from Canopée, No. 7]
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Each year, from 1989-1993, 3,800-6,700 wild caught primates were legally exported from Africa and reported to CITES. Cercopithecus aethiops and Papio spp. were, by far, the most frequently exported African primates. Kenya was the largest exporter, followed by Tanzania, Ethiopia and Senegal. Based on the data available, it appears that the present levels of legal international trade do not have much impact on the survival of the primate taxa involved. What is not known, howeve,r is the level and impact of illegal trade in African primates. Further, our inadequate understanding of the taxonomy of African primates is a serious problem in assessing the impact of trade on survival. Two species and 10 subspecies of African primates not listed under CITES Appendix I are now considered by IUCN to be highly threatened taxa. It is important that international legal trade in these 12 taxa be reassessed to determine whether up-grading to Appendix I is required.
All but five of the countries which comprise continental Africa are signatories to the 1973 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). With the exception of Angola, the countries which have not ratified CITES (i.e., Lesotho, Libya, Swaziland and Western Sahara) are of little importance with respect to primate conservation (Wolfheim, 1983; Oates, 1986, 1996; Lee et al., 1988).
CITES Appendix I lists those species and subspecies of African primates which are believed to be threatened by international trade. International trade in these species/subspecies or their products is subject to strict regulation by ratifying nations, and their trade for primarily commercial purposes is banned. The following 10 African primates are presently listed under Appendix I:
Cercocebus galeritus galeritus--Tana River mangabey (endangered)
Mandrillus sphinx--mandrill (lower risk)
Mandrillus leucophaeus--drill (endangered)
Cercopithecus diana--Diana monkey (vulnerable)
Procolobus badius gordonorum-- Iringa (Uhehe) red colobus (endangered)
Procolobus badius rufomitratus--Tana River red colobus (endangered)
Procolobus verus--olive colobus (lower risk)
Pan troglodytes--chimpanzee (endangered)
Pan paniscus--pygmy chimpanzee (bonobo) (endangered)
Gorilla gorilla--gorilla (endangered)
All other African primates are listed in CITES Appendix II. Appendix II species are those that could become threatened with extinction if trade is not controlled. Trade in Appendix II species, or their products, is subject to regulation and to monitoring of its effects.
In late 1995, the IUCN/SSC Trade Programme, TRAFFIC and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) conducted the third biennial review of trade in those African primates listed in CITES Appendix II. The objective of the review was to assess the impact of legal international trade in wild caught African primates from 1989 through 1993 so that any species or subspecies thought to be adversely affected by this activity, at either the national or global level, could be brought to the attention of the CITES Animals Committee. Once possible adverse levels of trade are identified for a species, CITES conducts a more detailed review. If the review concludes that detrimental levels of international trade are indeed occurring, the Animals Committee then identifies remedial measures which individual CITES member states may undertake to ensure that the trade is no longer detrimental. The review also assists the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group to plan conservation action.
For the 1995 review, CITES provided each participant with listings, by year, of the total number of each Appendix II primate species known to have originated from the wild and exported from each member country, and reported to the CITES data base, for the years 1989 through 1993. What follows here is an overview of the more important African primate conservation information revealed by these trade data. The scientific names used in this paper follow Oates (1996).
From 1989-1993, the most traded African primateTable 1. The most frequently traded African primates, as reported to CITES, for the period 1989-1993, inclusive. The figures represent the mean annual number of live animals and trophies traded. The reported origin of all specimens was either wild caught or unrecorded. Thus, trade of captive bred specimens is not included here. Data provided by CITES (August 1995).
* A mean 810 C. aethiops originated each year from wild populations in non-African locations, particularly from Barbados and St. Kitts/Nevis. They are included in this value.
** 850 wild caught P. anubis reexported from the United Kingdom in 1990 are included in this mean value.
was the green (vervet) monkey Cercopithecus aethiops (mean=3,661 live
animals/year), followed by olive (anubis) baboon Papio anubis, chacma
baboon Papio ursinus, and patas monkey
Erythrocebus patas (Table 1). For the seven most traded African primates, the mean total number of live individuals traded each year was reported as 5,574.
The four most traded species (Table 1) are widespread and generally common over much of their range (Dorst & Dandelot, 1970; Wolfheim, 1983; Oates, 1986, 1996). Two species, the spot-nosed monkey Cercopithecus petaurista and the Guinea baboon Papio papio, while often fairly numerous where they occur, have relatively small distributional ranges (Dorst & Dandelot, 1970; Wolfheim, 1983; Oates, 1986, 1988). For these two species, the removal of individuals from the wild might be having a negative impact on some local and national populations, particularly as these two species are also hunted (C. petaurista primarily for meat and P. papio mostly as a crop pest), and habitat loss continues to be a serious problem, especially for the forest-dependent C. petaurista (Wolfheim, 1983; Davies, 1987).
The largest exporter of African primates was Kenya, which shipped an average of 1,405 C. aethiops and 567 P. anubis each year from 1989-1993 (Table 2). Kenya was followed by Tanzania, Ethiopia and Senegal. The main trade species in these countries, C. aethiops and Papio spp., are also serious crop pests over large areas. As such, many times more individuals of these species are probably destroyed as "vermin" each year in all source countries than are exported. On the surface at least, it appears that the present levels of legal trade for these common species are probably not having much impact on their survival, except perhaps on local populations.
According to CITES records, the total numbers
Table 2. Listing of the African countries which most frequently traded certain species of wild-caught primates during the period 1989-1993, inclusive. The figures represent the mean annual number of individuals traded. Trade was in the form of live animals, skins and trophies. Data provided by CITES (August 1995).
of primates legally exported each year from African countries during the period 1985 through 1994 varied from 3,785 to 6,682 animals (Table 3). Although there is no clear trend in the overall numbers of primates exported annually during this 10 year period, there is an obvious shift from the export of C. aethiops to the export of Papio spp.
Virtually no information is available on how many individuals of each species of primate are captured and die prior to export, how many are exported illegally, how many are exported from non-CITES countries, or what impact the domestic trade might be having.
Another concern is related to our inadequate understanding of African primate taxonomy (Oates, 1986, 1996; Lee et al., 1988; Mittermeier, 1995; Bearder et al., 1996). Primate conservation in Africa, including the enforcement activities of CITES, is currently hindered by an inadequate understanding of the taxonomy of several groups, particularly of the vervet, baboon, red colobus and galago groups. How many species are there really, what is the distribution and conservation status of each, and what are the threats? Some "species" which are now viewed as Africa's most common and widespread, and on which basis considerable trade is permitted, may really be comprised of several species. For example, C. aethiops is one of the most frequently traded primates in Africa largely because it is generally believed to be Africa's most common and widespread primate. It, however, has a complex taxonomy. Some authorities believe that C. aethiops is really comprised of four species (aethiops, pygerythrus, sabaeus, tantalus) and 21 or so subspecies, some of them very distinctive (Dandelot, 1971; Lernould, 1988). A closer look at the trade in this group might reveal some detrimental impact on one or more of the rarer, more localised "subspecies".
Table 3. Total exports of wild caught primates from Africa for the period 1985-1994, inclusive, as reported to CITES. Trade was in the form of live animals, skins and trophies. Data provided by CITES (March 1996).
Until we have adequate answers to our present taxonomic questions, we should give particular attention to trade in the more unique, distinctive, African primate "subspecies", many of which are poorly known, and/or have very small distributional ranges and populations. For example, the djam-djam C. aethiops djamdjamensis is a particularly distinctive and little known form endemic to Ethiopia (Carpaneto & Gippoliti, 1990), the third leading country in C. aethiops exports. If it is C.a. djamdjamensis that is being exported, CITES might recommend a ban until the taxonomic position and conservation status of this animal are better understood. In 1994 the CITES Animals Committee contracted a detailed desk study on C. aethiops. As a result of this review, it was concluded that exports from Ethiopia need further clarification.
During 1975-1992, some of Africa's more threatened primates were exported under Appendix II, albeit all in low numbers. These included five sun-tailed monkeys Cercopithecus solatus, 22 red-eared monkeys Cercopithecus erythrotis and 21 white-throated monkeys Cercopithecus erythrogaster (J. Caldwell pers. comm.). These are three out of eight species and 13 subspecies of African primates that are not listed in Appendix I but which are now considered to be threatened (IUCN, in press) (Table 4).
Appendix I is apparently closely equivalent to IUCN's "critically endangered" and "endangered" threat categories. As such, there may be a case for moving the two species and 10 subspecies listed in Table 4 as "critically endangered" and "endangered", to CITES Appendix I. According to the new CITES criteria (Resolution Conf. 9.24), to list species or subspecies in Appendix I you need to show that they may be in international trade. However, the intention of CITES listing is to protect species and subspecies from detrimental international trade; not to list them merely to draw attention to their worsening conservation status. The rationale is that if CITES appendices are overloaded with species and subspecies not clearly threatened by international trade then the whole system might become unwieldy and ineffective. Thus, it must be clear whether international trade is affecting survival.
A species or subspecies classified as "vulnerable" (Table 4) is unlikely to qualify for Appendix I listing but should be closely monitored under Appendix II and the level of legal international trade assessed to determine whether such trade may be threatening its survival.
It should be noted that one of the 10 species of African primates now under
Appendix I is presently listed by IUCN (in press) as "vulnerable" (C.
diana), and that two species are listed as "lower risk" (M. sphinx
& P. verus). This may warrant the re-examination of these three
species to determine
Table 4. List of the CITES Appendix II species and subspecies of African primates that should be considered for up-grading to CITES Appendix I. All of these species and subspecies are now listed as "critically endangered", "endangered" or "vulnerable" in the 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals (IUCN, in press).
Poo crowned monkey
Delta red colobus
Waldron's bay colobus
whether there is sufficient threat from international trade to justify their continued listing in Appendix I.
Table 4 lists seven subspecies of red colobus, a group with a confusing taxonomy (Oates, 1996) and for which two subspecies are already listed in Appendix I. Given the many endangered subspecies in this taxa, and the practical problems of determining, ex situ, which subspecies a specimen belongs to, it would make good sense to up-grade Procolobus badius to an Appendix I species.
Based on the trade data reported to CITES for African primates, together with what we know concerning the status of each species/subspecies in the wild, it seems reasonable to conclude that legal international trade in African primates is probably not presently having much adverse impact on any Appendix 2 primate species/subspecies. In all cases, legal trade is probably small relative to the size of the total wild population. Few African primatologists would disagree with the statement that habitat loss, habitat degradation and bushmeat hunting (Wilke & Boundzanga, 1992; WRI, 1994; WSPA, 1995; Meder, 1996) are far more important threats to Africa's primates at this time than is the current level of trade. None the less, all species of African primates currently listed as "critically endangered" and "endangered" by IUCN (in press) should now be re-evaluated to determine whether listing in CITES Appendix I is necessary. This would help eliminate any danger that future trade might pose.
One of the main obstacles that CITES faces is insufficient quantitative information on the conservation status of wild populations and subpopulations of African primate species and subspecies. What is the size, distribution and main threats to those species and subspecies of African primates suspected to be in most danger of extinction? Such information is vital to assessing conservation status and, thus, to prioritising conservation action. Many of us in the field are in a position to undertake population surveys on primates in the regions where we work. We can also make more of an effort to get this critical information to CITES. If you have such information, please send it to: Alison Rosser, SSC Wildlife Trade Programme Officer, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK, E-mail: email@example.com
Source country wildlife authorities, CITES, TRAFFIC, IUCN/SSC, WCMC, conservation NGOs, and others, all play important roles in monitoring and controlling the impact of both illegal and legal trade on Africa's primates. They should be congratulated on a job well done and further encouraged to expand efforts to evaluate, reduce, and eventually eliminate, the illegal trade in African primates.
I wish to thank Jan Kalina, Alison Rosser, Nina Marshall, John Caldwell, Debra Forthman, Lorna Depew, Ian Gordon and Deborah Gust for commenting on the original manuscript. John Caldwell provided the CITES trade statistics. These statistics derive from the WCMC CITES Trade Database, Cambridge, UK.
Thomas M. Butynski
Zoo Atlanta's Africa Biodiversity Conservation Program, National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 24434, Nairobi, Kenya, Tel: 254-2-745374, Fax: 254-2-890615
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World Resources Institute. 1994. World Resources 1994-95. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
World Society for the Protection of Animals. 1995. Slaughter of the apes: How the tropical timber industry is devouring Africa's great apes. WSPA published report, London.
Surveys were conducted in the southern regions of Bénin and Togo in 1994 and 1995, searching for populations of the red-bellied guenon, Cercopithecus erythrogaster. The guenon was found only in the Lama Forest of Benin, where less than 20 km2 of natural dry forest remains. All the C. erythrogaster observed in the Lama Forest had red bellies, like the type specimen, whereas Nigerian C. erythrogaster have grey bellies. The Lama monkeys are threatened both by the small and fragmented nature of their habitat and by hunting. Stronger protection and a management plan are needed.
In January 1994 and July-August 1995, I made surveys in southern Bénin and in Togo to look for populations of red-bellied guenons Cercopithecus erythrogaster. The type specimen of this species and some other old museum skins have rust-red bellies, but all the wild monkeys I had seen in Nigerian forests had grey bellies. The aim of the new surveys was to locate populations resembling the type form and to establish their consevation status.
C. erythrogaster was named from a young female monkey with a red belly and chest that reached London Zoo from West Africa in 1866. Very few specimens of this monkey came into museum collections during the next 70 year, and no wild population was described until 1940, when the monkey was observed in forests near Bénin City, Nigeria (Mason, 1940). Wolfheim (1983) found less information on C. erythrogaster than on any other species in her exhaustive review of the status of all living primates and she noted a report from J.S. Gartlan that the monkey might be extinct.
I began to investigate the status of this species in 1981 and, with P.A. Anadu and J.L. Werre, discovered that it still survived in several parts of south-west Nigeria, from the Omo Forest Reserve in Ogun State in the west, to the proposed Taylor Creek Forest Reserve on the eastern edge of the Niger Delta in Rivers State. These surveys led to the creation of the Okomu Wildlife Sanctuary in Edo State, following our suggestion that Okomu offered the best prospects for the conservation of C. erythrogaster (Oates & Anadu, 1992).
While these Nigerian surveys were in progress, Sayer & Green (1984) reported that they had seen a captive C. erythrogaster in Cotonou in the Republic of Bénin. This individual was said to have come from a forested area near the Nigerian border.
Although the type specimen of C. erythrogaster had a rusty-red belly, the name "white-throated guenon" seems to be the most appropriate name for the Nigerian animals, as all the animals we observed in the wild in Nigeria had grey bellies. After the initial Nigerian surveys, I concluded that the red-bellied trait had either become very rare since the first specimens were collected, or was characteristic of a localised population that had not yet been seen in the wild (Oates, 1985). Then in 1987, a red-bellied animal reached Mulhouse Zoo in France (J.-M. Lernould, in litt., October 1987) and this was followed by several more in subsequent years. An animal dealer informed Lernould that the monkeys had originated in Togo.
Very little natural forest remains in southern Bénin or Togo. Although this part of West Africa is often regarded as a savannah area (the "Dahomey Gap") interposed between the forests of Ghana and Nigeria, the natural vegetation was probably once tropical dry forest (Ern, 1988). The forest has been destroyed and modified by centuries of agricultural activity. Most of the remnant Dahomey Gap forest occurs as tiny patches in sacred groves near villages. The only relatively large area of natural forest that survives is in the Forêt Classée de Lama in southern Bénin (Fig. 1).
Assisted by I. Faucher, I surveyed the following sites in Bénin, in
addition to the Lama Forest: sacred forests at Akwezoun, Hozin, Lonkli,
Sakété and Yévéouetou; small areas of natural
forest in the Forêts Classées of Aggoua, Djigbe and Pahou; and a
small research forest at the Pobé oil-palm research station. In Togo
only a few tiny patches of
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Figure 1. Map of the survey area, showing location of the Mt. Lama Forest and some other sites mentioned in the text.
sacred forest could be located, of which the largest was at Amédé Houévé on the southern edge of Lac Togo. In Togo we also investigated remnants of moist forest in the vicinity of Mt. Klouto close to the Ghana border.
In our surveys, C. erythrogaster was seen only in the Lama Forest; we received no convincing reports of its presence in any other location. In several of the other forest remnants, Cercopithecus aethiops or Cercopithecus mona were seen or reported. A group of spot-nosed monkeys Cercopithecus petaurista was seen by Faucher in the forest near Mt. Klouto, and a captive C. petaurista was also found there.
On my first visit to the Lama Forest, in January 1994, I thought that I saw both grey-bellied and red-bellied C. erythrogaster. During more careful observations in the Lama in 1995, only red-bellied monkeys were seen. This suggests that there may be a genetic discontinuity between the Bénin population and the grey-bellied populations in Nigeria. Jean-Marc Lernould (in litt., 1988) has suggested that this might justify the recognition of two subspecies of C. erythrogaster.
The origin of the red-bellied zoo animals remains a mystery, as we have been unable to locate any wild population in Togo. It seems likely that the animals originated in Bénin, perhaps from the Lama Forest. However, the existence of other small populations of red-bellied monkeys cannot yet be ruled out.
In the 163 km2 of the Lama Forest, less than 20 km2 of natural forest remains. Afzelia africana, Ceiba pentandra and Dialium guineense are among the common trees in this forest. The rest of the reserve is largely covered by teak plantations and farms of cassava and other crops. We very tentatively estimate the population size of C. erythrogaster in the Lama Forest as 400-800 individuals. Other primates observed there are C. mona, C. aethiops and the olive colobus Procolobus verus; this is the first record of olive colobus from Bénin. CUNY graduate student Reiko Matsuda is studying the behavioural ecology of C. mona in Lama, and reports that hunting has increased in the forest over the last year (in litt., February 1996).
A GTZ project that is advising the Bénin forestry authority (ONAB) on the management of Lama is urging the full protection of the remaining natural forest, which is patchily distributed across a 47 km2 "noyau" area that has not been cultivated or planted. It is vital that the noyau be protected against tree-cutting, cultivation, fire and hunting, for the forest is not only the largest single remnant of Dahomey Gap dry forest, it is the only known home of the type form of C. erythrogaster.
Surveys were supported by grants from the People's Trust for Endangered Species and the CUNY Research Foundation. A great deal of advice and assistance in Bénin was provided by staff of the Ministère du Developement Rural and the Office National du Bois, including the Mission Forestière Allemande.
John F. Oates
Hunter College and the Graduate School, CUNY, Department of Anthropology, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA, Tel: 1-212-772-5410, Fax: 1 212-772-5423
Ern, H. 1988. Flora and vegetation of the Dahomey Gap--a contribution to the plant geography of west tropical Africa. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 25: 517-520.
Mason, P.F. 1940. A brief faunal survey of north-western Bénin. I. Mammals. Nigerian Field 9: 17-22.
Oates, J.F. 1985. The Nigerian guenon, Cercopithecus erythrogaster: Ecological, behavioural, systematic and historical observations. Folia Primatologica 45: 25-43.
Oates, J.F. & P.A. Anadu. 1992. Report on a survey of rainforest primates in southwest Nigeria. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group Newsletter 2: 17.
Sayer, J.A. & A.A. Green. 1984. The distribution and status of large mammals in Bénin. Mammal Review 14: 37-50.
Wolfheim, J.H. 1983. Primates of the World: Distribution, Abundance, and Conservation. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Abstract: The continuing discovery of new mammal species creates some difficulties for current concepts of biodiversity and throws new light on conservation priorities. This paper examines distinctions between 'cryptic' primates (galagos and lorises), including four previously unrecognised galagos in Tanzania, and calls for help to characterise populations throughout Africa as a prelude to measuring their genetic relatedness.
It is generally accepted that there are up to 230 species of primates alive today. However, the recent discovery of a number of cryptic species has cast doubt on this number, and it may be helpful to admit that we cannot yet be confident about how many primate species exist. Among galagos (bushbabies), for example, the number of species recognised by specialists has risen from six in 1975, to 11 in 1985 and 17 in 1995, with no indication that this rate of increase is likely to slow (Fig. 1). Therefore, the chances of discovering an unrecognised species of galago are still very good. This paper provides an explanation of why this is so, and asks people who get a chance to visit African forests and savannahs to collaborate with our research programme--with the possibility that they too may discover a `new' species (see Table 1).
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Figure 1. Map of Tanzania showing sites at which the newly recognised galago species have been studied: A. Grant's galago; B. Rondo galago; C. Matundu galago; D. mountain galago.
Why is it that galagos and other species have been overlooked? Is there simply a trend towards splitting? And how do the newly-recognised species differ from subspecies? We will attempt to answer these questions through a brief consideration of how species arise in the first place and why they diversify. Our arguments are based on research on galagos, but they apply to other secretive species which require much finer analysis if true levels of speciation are to be appreciated.
The theory of allopatric speciation holds that any physical barrier to mating between two or more populations will set in motion a process that may lead to new species. This is because as long as the physical barrier prevents migration of individuals between the populations, any genetic changes arising in one area cannot pass to another. Different mutations, together with non-identical selection pressures, will mean that the separate gene pools will start to diverge. In addition, particularly if the isolated populations are small, their genetic variability will be altered by random genetic drift (because chance events have a disproportionately large effect on small numbers). Nevertheless, it does not necessarily follow that new species will emerge; this will depend on whether or not there is a breakdown in sexual compatibility.
It is helpful to think of two kinds of selection pressure, namely natural selection and sexual selection, although the two are interrelated in subtle ways. Natural selection (or artificial selection in domestic animals) can lead to local variation within a species which may be quite extreme (as in domestic dogs or distinct subspecies in the wild), but inter-sexual selection (the influence of one sex on the other) ensures that the males and females continue to recognise one another. The importance of a shared system of attraction is underlined by the reformulated concept of species, put forward by Hugh Paterson in 1978, called the "Recognition Concept" (see also Paterson, 1985). Interestingly, this work was first published in South Africa and it passed largely unnoticed for several years. Paterson emphasises that each animal species can be characterised by possession of a unique fertilisation system, including sexual attraction between males and females which he calls a Specific-Mate Recognition System (SMRS). This may involve visual or chemical signals, sound, or touch in variable combinations depending on the species. For example, frogs and crickets use mainly sound, moths and domestic dogs use scent, and many monkeys and birds rely, to a large extent, on vision. Whatever system is used, selection on that particular set of characteristics (sexually attractive transmitters and receivers) will ensure that they remain mutually tuned between the sexes, whereas other aspects of the animal's biology are not under such constraints. The result is well illustrated in the case of the artificial selection of dogs, and other domestic animals, which can be bred in many forms to suit the interests of their owners providing that the SMRS (scent in the case of dogs) remains intact.
Table 1. List of galago species in Africa (March 1996).
Species group Common name (Latin name)
1) ELEGANT GROUP: 1. Southern elegant (elegantulus)
2. Northern elegant (pallidus)
2) ALLEN'S GROUP: 3. Makokou Allen's (gabonensis, status unclear)
4. Makande Allen's (status unclear)
5. Cameroon Allen's (alleni)
3) GREATER GROUP: 6. Small-eared, Garnett's (garnettii)
7. Large-eared (crassicaudatus)
8. Pygmy large-eared (status unclear)
9. Black bushbaby (status unclear)
4) LESSER GROUP: 10. Lesser needle-claw (matschiei)
11. Senegal (senegalensis)
12. Southern African (moholi)
13. Somali (gallarum)
5) SOUTHERN DWARF GROUP: 14. Rondo (sp. nov. A*))
15. Matundu (sp. nov. B*)
16. Amani/mountain (orinus)
6) ZANZIBAR GROUP: 17. Zanzibar (zanzibaricus)
18. Grant's (granti)
19. Kalwe small (status unclear)
7) NORTHERN DWARF GROUP:
THOMAS'S SUBGROUP: 20. Thomas's (thomasi--possibly other species)
DEMIDOFF'S SUBGROUP: 21. Demidoff's (demidoff--possibly other species)
* Note: These species are currently being described.
It follows that they are all members of the same species, despite the variability.
There are a number of advantages to the Recognition Concept of species over the better known Isolation Concept, which defines species by their inability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring (Mayr, 1970). First, it focuses on a set of characteristics that provide practical means of discriminating between closely-related species; second, it is compatible with the fact that different species can sometimes produce fertile hybrids; and third, it provides a more rigorous perspective on how new species might emerge. Thus, when applied to the process of speciation in the wild, it is clear that new species will form as, and when, there is a change in the Specific-Mate Recognition System of a population, for example, a change of sexual preference for a new smell, a different call or a novel visual display. Such changes are most likely to become fixed in isolated populations, particularly if they are small, since the choice of potential mates is limited and chance effects more prominent. Whatever the precise mechanisms of change, once it becomes the norm, the members of that population will no longer be attracted to individuals of the parent species, even if they come back into contact. This model fits well with what is known about the distribution of animal species in general; groups of closely-related species tend to be found on island archipelagos (as in the Galapagos) or where there are effective physical barriers to interbreeding between populations, but not where physical isolation is impossible.
We now have an explanation for why some species are relatively easy for human beings to recognise, whilst others are much harder. Our own SMRS is largely dominated by vision (although sound, touch and 'chemistry' undoubtedly play an important supplementary role). Consequently, we find it simple to separate animals that also rely on vision. Fortunately, vision is such an informative sense, and is so widely distributed among animals, that it has proved very useful in the naming of species. However, it can seriously fail to separate those animals that attract their mates primarily by sound and scent, especially if they use other senses that we do not possess (for example, ultrasound or electric impulses). In reality, such 'cryptic' species are no less valid than any other, but we are easily misled into thinking of them as being much more similar than would be the case if we had their kind of sensitivity. This is well illustrated by the difficulty in separating species in many groups of nocturnal animals including insects, frogs, owls, bats, rodents and prosimian primates.
It follows from what has been said that the easiest way for us to distinguish between free-living species is to concentrate on those aspects of the communication system that the animals themselves use to attract partners. This is easier said than done. Among galagos, sound and scent are the principal means of attracting members of the opposite sex but, at present at least, scents are relatively hard to collect and analyse. Fortunately, both sexes use relatively loud 'advertising' calls, and these are diagnostic for each species (Bearder et al., 1995) (Fig. 2). A wealth of specimens available in museums and laboratories provides access to additional characteristics which turn out to be very useful--either because they too are influenced by inter-sexual selection, or because they are the products of adaptation to different ecological niches. Characteristics of the first kind include the detailed structure of reproductive organs which appear to affect successful mating, or the pattern of facial markings which aids in recognition at night. The most useful features of the second kind include subtle, but contrasting, structural details of hairs, limbs and various signals, such as alarm calls. In theory, these are likely to differ in relation to climatic variation and vegetation density in different zones of a forest, or in different habitats.
Using comparative techniques, the Nocturnal Primate Research Group at Oxford Brookes University has unearthed four 'new' species in Tanzania alone: (Grant's galago Galagoides granti, Matundu galago Galagoides udzungwensis, mountain galago Galagoides orinus and Rondo galago Galagoides rondoensis (Honess 1996) (Fig. 2). We are also in the process of measuring genetic relatedness between populations and species through direct analysis of DNA sequences, which can now be done from a tiny piece of dried skin from museum specimens.
Given the wide distribution of galagos south of the Sahara, and the many separate collections in Africa, it is clearly impractical for us to visit more than a fraction of the sites. We are, therefore, asking for volunteers who may be in a position to help. Our aim is to extend such detailed biological comparisons to as many populations of galagos and lorises (pottos and angwantibos) as possible. The specimens required cause no harm to the animals and enable existing collections to be utilised more effectively. In the first instance we are interested in:
* hair samples (especially the long guard hairs plucked from between the shoulder blades of pet animals or museum specimens, and hairs from scent glands);
* details of male reproductive anatomy (penis shape, length and degree of spininess);
* measurements of the limb bones (as a guide to style of locomotion);
the wild, or in captivity. To this end we have prepared a number of specimen tapes giving examples of typical calls and explaining how to recognise and sample the calls which are of most interest.
Tape recording at night is a lot less difficult than you might think. Bushbabies and other mammals can often be seen at night using a simple headband torch (4.5V) which picks out the brilliant reflections from their eyes. Covering the torch with a red filter is sometimes effective if the animals are disturbed by white light and it allows the night vision of the observer to improve over time. Binoculars are also helpful at night by increasing the effective capture of light, leading to useful and enjoyable sightings. Recordings can be made with a cassette tape recorder and directional microphone.
Some populations of particular interest which await further study are:
* Pygmy greater galagos in southeast Tanzania (Lindi and Newala Districts);
* An unidentified small species in the region of Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya;
* Detailed examination of populations allied to Elegant, Allen's, Thomas's and Demidoff's galagos in the central African forest block;
* Follow-up studies of populations in Malawi and southwest Tanzania;
* Lesser galagos related to Galago senegalensis, including Senegal, northern Kenya, Somalia, Namibia and Angola;
* Collection of hair, skin, blood and tissue samples, scent gland secretions and measurements/photographs, especially from lorises (which lack loud vocalizations).
If you are in a position to provide information of this kind, or would like further details on study methods, we would be very pleased to hear from you.
We thank G. Black for help with the diagrams, and all those people who have already sent samples and tape recordings for identification, including T. Evans, F. Dowsett-Lamaire, J. Oates, C. Harcourt, G. Jones, T. Fison, E. Moki, P. Jenkins, E. Williams, A. Perkin, T. Butynski, D. Schaaf, R. Reussien, J. Wickings, K. Stanger, E. Zimmermann, R. Pitts and K. Crouse.
Simon K. Bearder, Paul E. Honess, Michelle Bayes, Lesley Ambrose & Mat Anderson
Nocturnal Primate Research Group, School of Social Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK, Tel: 44-865-483750, Fax: 44-865-483937
Bearder S.K., P.E. Honess & L. Ambrose. 1995. Species diversity among galagos with special reference to mate recognition. In: Creatures of the Dark: The Nocturnal Prosimians. L. Alterman, M. K. Izard & G. A. Doyle, eds. Plenum Press, New York. pp. 331-352.
Honess, P.E. 1996. Speciation among galagos (Primates, Galagidae) in Tanzanian forests. Ph.D. Thesis, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford.
Mayr, E. 1970. Populations, Species and Evolution. Belknap Press, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Paterson, H.E.H. 1978. More evidence against speciation by reinforcement. South African Journal of Science 14: 369-371.
Paterson, H.E.H. 1985. The recognition concept of species. In: Species and Speciation, E.S. Vrba, ed. Transvaal Museum Monograph No. 4., Transvaal Museum, Pretoria.
The Iringa or Uhehe red colobus Procolobus badius gordonorum inhabits forests in the Udzungwa (also Uzungwa) Mountains and Kilombero Valley of southern Tanzania (Fig. 1). It is endangered, listed in Appendix II of CITES and in Class A of the African Convention. P. badius has the status of 'Presidential Game' in Tanzania and is therefore protected by law (Lee et al., 1988). However, P. b. gordonorum groups in the Udzungwas are subject to severe hunting pressure by the Wahehe people (Rodgers & Homewood, 1982) for whom they are a preferred source of protein (Wasser, pers. comm.). In the Kilombero Valley, adjacent to the eastern escarpment of the Udzungwas, the predominantly Muslim inhabitants do not hunt primates. Many of the P. badius in the Udzungwas inhabit forest fragments in forest reserves and unprotected areas which are exploited for timber. Their patchy distribution inhibits transfer of individuals for breeding purposes. The new Udzungwa National Park affords legal protection, but its size and steep slopes render it difficult to effectively patrol. A 1979 survey of a large part of the subspecies' range revealed that Magombero Forest, which lies in the Kilombero Valley, Click here for Picture
Figure 1. Location of Magombera Forest, Tanzania.
definitely contains the highest density of P. b. gordonorum and most probably the only viable population (Rodgers, 1981; Rodgers & Homewood, 1982; Decker et al., 1992).
In 1980 almost half of the 11 km2 forest was surrendered for settlement and clear-cut in exchange for incorporation of the remaining portion into the Selous Game Reserve. Due to an oversight, the annexation was never legalised, and a dispute over title to part of the forest land arose in 1991. In 1992 I was asked by the Selous Conservation Programme to collect data on the primate populations and forest condition of Magombera Forest in preparation for its annexation into the Selous Game Reserve (Decker, 1994).
The behavioural ecology of P. b. gordonorum has yet to be studied in detail. Prior to this study, the only available information was obtained in 1977 (Struhsaker & Leland, 1980). In order to learn more about the subspecies, I took field notes during the census in Magombera on the behavioural ecology of P. b. gordonorum and its interspecific interactions with other sympatric primate species.
The 6 km2 Magombera Forest lies in the Kilombero wetlands, 15-20 km east of the Udzungwa Mountains. The forest has been described in detail by Rodgers et al. (1979, 1980) and by Struhsaker and Leland (1980). Rare and endemic flora and fauna have been recorded in Magombera, and its six primate species make it the most diverse primate locality in mainland Tanzania east of the Mahari (also Mahali, Mahale, Makari) Mountains and Gombe Stream. It contains P. b. gordonorum, Colobus angolensis palliatus, Cercopithecus mitis monoides, and at least one species of Galago. Cercopithecus aethiops and Papio cynocephalus inhabit the forest edge. Magombera is also interesting for its birds, with a number of montane species occurring at an unusually low altitude (S. Stuart, pers. comm.).
At present, Magombera has no formal protection (Decker, 1994), although formal annexation has been recommended repeatedly (Kamara, 1978; Rodgers et al., 1980; Struhsaker & Leland, 1980, Hertel & Baldus, 1992; Kirenga, 1992; Decker, 1994; Hoffman, 1995). In January 1996, yet another survey of the primates and vegetation in Magombera Forest was conducted, reportedly for the purpose of justifying gazettement (Kibonde & Siege, pers. comm.). Hopefully, by the time of publication, it will have been placed under protection in the Selous Game Reserve.
When a P. badius group was located, I observed it for at least 30 min. Some groups were observed on several occasions for a total observation time of 33 h. When the colobus were feeding, a plant sample was taken and later identified. All polyspecific associations and interspecific interactions were recorded. Opportunistic scan samples were taken at 15 min intervals to acquire information on activity budgets. During scan samples, 407 observations were recorded between 0945 h and 1545 h. An activity budget was derived from a composite of all scan samples recorded, regardless of which group was observed.
During the census, conducted from September to November 1992, I located 16 groups of P. badius in Magombera (Decker, 1994). The number of individuals in the eight groups for which I obtained complete counts ranged from 26-50 ( x[macron] = 34). Group density was 2.7/km2. Although 338 P. badius were counted, the forest may contain as many as 544 (Decker, l994).
My field assistants and I also discovered six groups of P. badius in previously unreported locations (Decker, 1994). Two groups were seen in riverine forests along a 50 km stretch of the Msolwa River, one group inhabited a forest at the confluence of the Msolwa and Kilombero Rivers, and three groups were found in forest patches to the east of Magombera.
P. badius were seen feeding from 15 species of trees and lianas (Table 1). They fed on young leaves from 12 species, leaf buds from two, petioles of large, young leaves from one, and unripe fruits from three species.
Click here for Picture Figure 2. Activity budget of Procolobus badius gordonorum in Magombera Forest, Tanzania.
During scan samples, I found that most individuals moved through the canopy from 0945-
Table 1. Diet of Procolobus badius gordonorum in Magombera Forest, Tanzania.
Species Item Family
Afzelia quanzensis young leaves Caesalpinaceae
Albizia gummifera young leaves, leaf buds Mimosaceae
Borassus aethiopum young leaves Palmae
Byttreria fruticosa young leaves Sterculiaceae
Dialium holtzii young leaves Caesalpinaceae
Ficus sp. (strangling) unripe fruit Moraceae
Kigelia aethiopica young leaves Bignoniaceae
Parkia filicoidea young leaves Mimosaceae
Psychotria sp. petioles of young leaves Rubiaceae
Saba florida young leaves, leaf buds Apocynaceae
Schefflera myriantha (bak) Drake young leaves Araliaceae
Tabernaemontana pachysiphon fruit Apocynaceae
Tetrapleura tetraptera young leaves Mimosaceae
Treculia africana young leaves, fruit Moraceae
1030 h, possibly having a feeding bout in the early hours before we located a group (Table 2, Fig. 2). At l045 h most were inactive. From 1100-1130 h individuals fed, rested, groomed and played. Groups were again inactive from 1145-1245 h.
A few individuals began feeding and moving at 1300 h, although most remained inactive. By 1400 h all were moving and eating. From 1430-1500 h almost all were inactive. At 1515 h over half of the individuals were active and feeding. All animals recorded at 1545 h were again inactive.
Observations of play always involved only infants and small juveniles, and were recorded during periods when the adults were active.
During the census, nine groups of C. angolensis were seen in Magombera, ranging in size from 5-9 individuals ( x[macron] = 6) (Decker, 1994). In all, 46 individuals were seen. I observed the groups for a total of 12 h.
P. badius groups were seen in polyspecific groupings with C. angolensis on 15 occasions, four times in forests other than Magombera. These associations represent 50% of the 30 encounters we had with P. badius and 55% of our 27 encounters with C. angolensis. The interactions were peaceful, and two interspecific pairs were seen grooming.
The diet of the two species of colobus monkeys overlapped. I observed C. angolensis, as well as P. badius, feeding on the young leaves of Afzelia quanzensis and Schefflera myriantha, and on the large, young leaf petioles of a species of Psychotria.
P. badius groups were seen with groups of C. mitis six times or 20% of encounters with P. badius, once in a forest other than Magombera. On two of these occasions, the polyspecific groupings consisted of P. badius, C. mitis, and C. angolensis. No agonistic interactions were observed among the species. None of the polyspecific associations occurred in masting fruit trees.
One adult P. badius male, the only solitary P. badius seen during the census, was with a group of C mitis. Of four solitary C. angolensis sightings, one individual was with a group of P. badius.
During the census, I twice noticed black urine on leaves below P.
badius groups. Both C. Marsh and I had observed discoloured urine
beneath P .b. rufomitratus on numerous occasions in the Tana River
Primate National Reserve, Kenya (C.
Marsh, pers. comm.). No explanation has been
Table 2. Activity budget of Procolobus badius gordonorum in Magombera Forest, Tanzania.
Time No. of obs. Feeding Moving Inactive Play Groom Polyspecific
0945 10 10 C.m.m.a.
1000 10 10
1015 8 5 3
1030 16 10 4 2
1045 16 5 11
1100 13 3 6 4
1115 17 4 10 2 1 C.b.p.b.
1130 12 4 3 5
1145 16 16
1200 15 1 14 C.b.p.
1215 20 20 C.b.p.
1230 21 1 20 C.b.p.
1245 20 20 C.b.p.
1300 28 3 5 20 C.b.p.
1315 28 3 10 13 2
1330 26 9 13 2 2
1345 26 12 10 4 C.m.m.
1400 25 15 10
1415 8 6 2
1430 7 5 1 1
1445 5 5
1500 10 10
1515 20 5 10 5
1530 20 5 5 10 C.b.p.
1545 10 10
a. Cercopithecus mitis monoides
b. Colobus angolensis palliatus
established for the phenomenon.
Struhsaker and Leland (1980) noted the unusual frequency of affiliation of P. badius and C. angolensis groups in Magombera, having recorded far less frequent associations among P. b. tephrosceles and Colobus guereza in Kibale Forest, Uganda. Of 10 encounters in 1977 with P. badius in Magombera, 77 % were in association with C. angolensis and 44 % with C. mitis. Rodgers et al. (1979) saw P. badius with C. angolensis in 50 % of their 20 encounters with P. badius and with C. mitis in 20 % of their encounters. The frequencies of polyspecific association reported by Rodgers et al. are exactly the same as for this study.
Rodgers et al. (1979) also observed an overlap in diet of the two colobus species. Both species ate the fruit of Treculia africana, and leaves and unripe fruit of Erythrophleum sauveolens. C. angolensis also ate unripe fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera, and the leaves of Voacanga lutescens (also reported by Struhsaker & Leland, 1980), Cissus populnea and Acacia sp.
As in my study, Rodgers et al. (l979) also saw P. badius eat young leaves of T. tetraptera, Albezia gummifera, Parkia filicoidea, and Dialium holtzii. In addition, they observed P. badius feeding on Saba florida flowers, Ochna sp. leaves, T. africana fruit, E. sauveolens leaf, petiole and unripe fruit, and Xylopia parvifolia leaves.
Struhsaker and Leland (1980) saw two P. b. gordonorum eat Ochna sp. young leaves, one individual eating the basal petiole of mature leaves of P. filicoidea, and one feeding on fruit of T. africana.
Detailed field studies of other forms of P. badius have revealed marked differences in social behaviour. More information on the behavioural ecology of P. b. gordonorum would assist in determining the reasons for these differences and contribute knowledge on how best to conserve them and their habitat.
I thank G. Bigirube, G. Sabuni, R. Baldus, H. Hertel, J. Saidia, R. Massawe and F. Decker. C. Mabula and T. Msangi of Tanzania Forest Research Institute (TAFORI) in Lushoto identified plant specimens.
Barbara S. Decker
236 Big Canoe, Jasper, GA 30143, USA, Tel.: 1-706-268-3816, Fax: 1-796-268-3848.
Decker, B.S. 1994. Endangered primates in the Selous Game Reserve and an imminent threat to their habitat. Oryx 28: 183-190.
Decker, B.S., H. Hertel & J. Saidia. 1992. Preliminary results of a primate census in the Magombera Forest of southeastern Tanzania. In: A confidential report to the Director of Wildlife about the need to annex the Magombera Forest to the Selous Game Reserve, G. Bigirube & R. Baldus, eds. Unpublished report, Selous Conservation Programme, Dar-es-Salaam.
Hertel, H. & R. Baldus 1992. Executive summary. In: A confidential report to the Director of Wildlife about the need to annex the Magombera Forest to the Selous Game Reserve, G. Bigirube & R. Baldus, eds. Unpublished report, Selous Conservation Programme, Dar-es-Salaam.
Hoffman, H.R. 1995. Land use conflicts and habitat conservation: Magombera Forest, Tanzania (red colobus monkey). Selous Conservation Programme Discussion Paper No. 20, L. Siege, ed., SCP/GTZ, Dar-es-Salaam.
Kamara, B.A. 1978. Report of a survey of red colobus monkeys Colobus badius gordonorum Matschie 1900 in Magombera Forest Reserve-Msolwa, Kilombero District. Unpublished report, Miombo Research Centre-Kingupira, Game Division, Dar-es-Salaam.
Kirenga, E.J. 1992. The existing land use situation in and around the Kilombero Game Controlled Area and the Selous Game Reserve. Unpublished report, Regional Land Survey Office, Morogoro.
Lee, P.C., J. Thornback & E.L. Bennett. 1988. Threatened Primates of Africa: The IUCN Red Data Book. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Rodgers, W.A. 1981. The distribution and conservation status of colobus monkeys in Tanzania. Primates 22: 33-45.
Rodgers, W.A. & K.M. Homewood. 1982. Biological values and conservation prospects for the forests and primate populations of the Uzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Biological Conservation 24: 285-304.
Rodgers, W.A., K.M. Homewood & J.B. Hall. 1979. An ecological survey of Magombera Forest Reserve, Kilombero District, Tanzania. Unpublished report, University of Dar-es-Salaam.
Rodgers, W.A., K.M. Homewood & J.B. Hall. 1980. The railway and a rare colobus monkey. Oryx 25: 491-495.
Struhsaker, T.T. & L. Leland 1980. Observations on two rare and endangered populations of red colobus monkeys in East Africa: Colobus badius gordonorum and Colobus badius kirkii. African Journal of Ecology 18: 191-216.
This brief study at Zoo Atlanta measured the activity patterns of one male and two female Angolan colobus Colobus angolensis in a new, naturalistic outdoor exhibit, for comparison with published activity budgets of wild congeners. This provided animal managers with a simple, quantitative index of the effectiveness of this exhibit in promoting species-typical behaviour in these three colobus. Fifty-six hours of data were collected by instantaneous scans at 1 min intervals. The monkeys spent the highest percentage of intervals sitting (52%), followed by feeding (23%) and lying (14%). Maintenance, locomotion, and social behaviour each occurred in fewer than 5% of intervals. Although the study involved only three subjects, and can only be considered suggestive, their activity budgets were similar to those reported for wild Colobus guereza and Colobus polykomos.
One criterion proposed in evaluations of the psychological well-being of confined primates is the expression of behaviour patterns typical of wild members of the species (Novak & Drewson, 1989). A comparison of the similarity between the activity budgets of wild and captive animals can provide animal managers with a method to assess the effectiveness of zoo exhibit design in promoting psychological well-being.
Here we describe the behaviour patterns of three captive Angolan black-and-white colobus Colobus angolensis palliatus after their introduction to a new, naturalistic outdoor enclosure. The purpose of the study was to assess the degree to which the animals exhibited behaviour typical of wild Colobus spp. While there have been several brief studies on the ecology of free-ranging C. angolensis (Groves, 1973; Moreno-Black & Maples, 1977; Moreno-Black & Bent, 1982; Thomas, 1991; Maisels et al., 1994), a literature search revealed nothing on their activity budgets in the wild or their behaviour in captivity. Instead, studies on wild populations of the closely-related Colobus guereza and Colobus polykomos were used for comparison with these C. a. palliatus.
One male and two female C. angolensis, all captive-born and housed together at Lowry Park Zoo, Tampa, Florida, USA, were observed after their transfer to Zoo Atlanta in Georgia. The male (half-sib) was born 14 February 1992; the non-contracepted, female, full-siblings were born 19 September 1990 and 2 May 1992. The monkeys were introduced to the new, netted exhibit (2,460 m3) on 20 May 1995, and occupied it from approximately 1000-1700 h daily. In addition to fabricated trees and vines, live trees, shrubs, and bamboo were established in the exhibit (Table 1).
Table 1: Plants growing in the Colobus angolensis exhibit at Zoo Atlanta.
Leatherleaf viburnum (Viburnum rhytidophyllym)
Golden bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea)
Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora)
Laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia)
Dwarf bamboo (Pleioblastus pygmaeus)
Windmill palm (Trachycarpus fortunei)
Wintergreen barberry (Berberis julianae)
Bridalwreath spiraea (Spiraea x Varhouteii)
Hume holly #2 (Ilex x Attenuata hume #2)
Each morning, 3 cups of Leafeater Biscuit (Marion Zoological, 13700B Watertower Circle, Plymouth, MN 55441, USA) and 408 g of mixed whole or chunked vegetables (50% yellow vegetable [e.g., sweet potato, winter squash, carrots], 45% green, leafy vegetables and legumes [e.g., green beans, bok choy, collards, broccoli], 5% seasonal [e.g., radish, cucumber]) were scattered on the ground throughout the enclosure (there were no feeding platforms). At night, the C. angolensis were housed indoors, where they received another three
Table 2: Ethogram for C. angolensis in an exhibit at Zoo Atlanta.
Lie: Colobus reclines (prone or supine).
Sit: Colobus sits.
Locomotion: Colobus walks, runs, climbs, swings or leaps.
Feed: Colobus forages, chews food or holds food.
Maintenance: Colobus urinates, defecates, scratches or self-grooms.
Affiliative: One colobus grooms or plays with another, or one colobus touches another gently; one colobus is groomed or touched by another.
Agonistic: One colobus bites, slaps, pushes or pulls another colobus, or is bitten, slapped, pushed or pulled by another.
Locomotion Interaction: One colobus approaches (moves within 1 m of another), supplants (individual leaves less than 5 s after another individual approaches) or chases another. One colobus moves away from another, or is approached by or chased by
Vocalise: Colobus vocalises.
Other: Colobus engages in any behavior except those listed above.
Note: Behaviours were not mutually exclusive. For example, both Locomotion and Feed were recorded if the colobus was chewing food and walking. However, Lie and Sit were never recorded with another behavior.
cups of biscuits, 771 g of mixed vegetables and 318 g of mixed whole or chunked fruit (apples or pears, oranges, bananas and grapes).
Overall activity budgets are shown in Figure 1. The monkeys were most frequently observed sitting (52%), primarily (86%) off the ground (Fig. 2). Sitting was the predominant behaviour during all hours of the day (Fig. 3), particularly from 1500 to 1700 h, prior to the time they were brought indoors each evening.
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Figure 1. Activity budgets of three Colobus angolensis at Zoo Atlanta.
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Figure 2. Arboreal and terrestrial distribution of behaviours of three captive Colobus angolensis at Zoo Atlanta.
Foraging and Feeding (23%) was the most frequent active behaviour exhibited by these C. angolensis (Fig. 1). With respect to the arboreal/terrestrial distribution of this activity, the monkeys fed slightly more frequently on the ground (53% vs 47%), which is where the provisioned food was scattered. Most arboreal foraging was on leaves and bark of exhibit trees, shrubs and bamboo (Fig. 2). There was a post-release feeding peak from 1000 to 1100 h. The percentage of intervals spent Feeding was fractionally lowest between 1200 and 1300 h; thereafter, it remained fairly constant.
The third most-frequent behaviour observed was Lying (14%). They were always off the ground when recumbent (Fig. 2), either on fabricated rocks or large, artificial branches. The monkeys often lay for long periods between 1100 h (the end of the primary feeding peak) and 1500 h. The percentage of intervals spent Lying was marginally highest between 1200 and 1300 h (Fig. 3).
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Figure 3. Distribution of behaviours of three captive Colobus angolensis at Zoo Atlanta.
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Figure 4. Comparison of activity budgets of captive and wild Colobus spp (* - this study; ** - Oates, 1977; ~ - Dasilva, 1992).
Maintenance was recorded during fewer than 5% of intervals (Fig. 1) and decreased slightly over the course of the day (Fig. 3).
Locomotion was the second-most active behaviour, though it also occurred in fewer than 5% of the samples (Fig. 1). The animals most often engaged in arboreal locomotion (67%). The Zoo Atlanta C. angolensis typically galloped along the flexible, fabricated vines in the exhibit; they often lost their balance, but usually caught themselves before a fall; only about 8% of locomotion in this study consisted of leaping, either quadrupedally or with forelimbs leading. After 1100 h, Locomotion remained fairly constant (Fig. 3).
Social interactions (Affiliative, Locomotion interaction, and Agonism) were also relatively rare (<5%, Fig. 1); the majority of these (84%) were sedentary affiliation (primarily grooming). Locomotion interaction accounted for only 16% of Social interactions, and contact aggression was never observed. The majority of social interactions occurred while off the ground (Fig. 2). Social interactions were most common from 1300 to 1400 h, least frequent between 1000 and 1100 h (Fig. 3). Vocalisations were never recorded, but were heard during pilot observations.
Figure 4 compares activity budgets of the C. angolensis at Zoo
Atlanta with those reported for wild C. guereza (Oates, 1977) and C.
polykomos (Dasilva, 1992). Although the C. angolensis in this study
were recorded off the ground more often than not, they did exhibit the highest
percentage of stationary (66% vs 57% & 61%) behaviours when compared to
free-ranging C. guereza and C. polykomos. Locomotion by these
captive animals was the same as for wild C. guereza, but was lower than
that reported for wild C. polykomos (5% vs 5% & 9%). Given the much
smaller volume of space and the more concentrated resources available to the
captive C. angolensis, less locomotion might be
The percentage of time the captive C. angolensis spent
Feeding fell between the percentages obtained in the two studies of wild
Colobus spp. (23% vs 20% & 28%). This, too, is consistent with the
fact that the zoo monkeys were provisioned, but also had access to edible live
plants (Table 1). These enabled them to engage in feeding ad libitum.
The continuous availability of live browse provided the animals with more
options for their feeding activity, a key factor in discussions of
psychological well-being and appropriate enrichment.
Struhsaker (1975) remarked on the common galloping gait of wild Colobus spp., and Morbeck (1977) reported that they also frequently leap from branch to branch, quadrupedally or forelimbs first, when moving among trees. Both forms of locomotor behaviour were exhibited by these animals in the confines of the exhibit.
The Zoo Atlanta animals engaged infrequently in social interactions. No clearly-defined dominance hierarchy was evident; the male supplanted and was supplanted by the females, but supplants between the females occurred rarely. Colobines appear to have more subtle dominance hierarchies than cercopithecines (Struhsaker & Leland, 1987). Aggressive behaviours were never recorded during this brief study, and wild Colobus spp. also rarely display aggression (Oates, 1994).
Finally, although each species of Colobus spp. has a distinctive, loud roaring call (Oates & Trocco, 1983), only fully adult males roar; vocalisations are thought to regulate troop spacing (Marler, 1969). As Zoo Atlanta had only a single group with one young male, it is not surprising that no loud calls were heard.
We suggest that, despite the many differences in environments and methodologies that exist between field and zoo studies, attempts to apply knowledge of the behavioural ecology of a species in the wild to zoo exhibit design and husbandry increase the likelihood that confined animals will exhibit normal patterns of behaviour. Short studies such as this one, conducted by an undergraduate intern, are a way for animal managers to assess the "success" of the exhibit design. In this instance, while the design overall appears to be quite effective, it is clear that the absence of arboreal feeding stations (especially in a species that typically rests, feeds and travels at heights between 21-30 m; Bocian, pers. comm., July 24, 1996) and the once-daily provisioning schedule, are elements of design and husbandry which detract from the animals' ability to exhibit optimal species-typical behaviour patterns (Markowitz, 1982; Forthman Quick, 1984; Chamove & Anderson, 1989). Evaluations of this kind can provide quantitative justification for modifications in exhibit design and animal husbandry.
We thank S.D. Elder and L.A. Perkins for their assistance in this project, C.M. Bocian for sharing results of her study, and T.M. Butynski, J. Oates, C.D. Schaaf, Ian Gordon, Lorna Depew and M.R. Shyan for helpful editorial comments.
Colorado College, Worner Box 1904, 902 North Cascade, Colorado Springs, CO 80946, USA, Tel: 1-719-389-7128
Georgia Institute of Technology & Zoo Atlanta, 800 Cherokee Avenue SE, Atlanta, GA, USA, 30315-1440, Tel: 1-404-624-5825, Fax: 1-404-624-5684
Chamove, A.S. & J.R. Anderson. 1989. Examining environmental enrichment. In: Housing, Care and Psychological Wellbeing of Captive and Laboratory Primates, E.F. Segal, ed. Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, New Jersey, pp. 183-202.
Dasilva, G.L. 1992. The western black-and-white colobus as a low-energy strategist: Activity budgets, energy expenditure and energy intake. Journal of Animal Ecology 61: 79-91.
Dasilva, G.L. 1993. Postural changes and behavioural thermoregulation in Colobus polykomos: The effect of climate and diet. African Journal of Ecology 31: 226-241.
Forthman Quick, D.L. 1984. An integrative approach to environmental engineering in zoos. Zoo Biology 3: 65-77.
Groves, C. 1973. Notes on the ecology of the Angola colobus (Colobus angolensis P.L. Sclater 1860) in N.E. Tanzania. Folia Primatologica 20: 12-26.
Maisels, F., A. Gautier-Hion & J.P. Gautier. 1994. Diets of two sympatric colobines in Zaire: More evidence of seed-eating in forests on poor soils. International Journal of Primatology 15: 681-701.
Markowitz, H. 1982. Behavioral Enrichment in the Zoo. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, New York.
Marler, P. 1969. Colobus guereza: Territoriality and group composition. Science 163: 93-95.
Morbeck, M. 1977. Positional behavior, selective use of habitat substrate and associated non-positional behavior in free-ranging Colobus guereza (Rippel, 1835). Primates 18: 35-58.
Moreno-Black, G.S. & E.F. Bent. 1982. Secondary compounds in the diet of Colobus angolensis. African Journal of Ecology 20: 29-36.
Moreno-Black, G. & W. Maples. 1977. Differential habitat utilization of four Cercopithecidae in a Kenyan forest. Folia Primatologica 27: 85-107.
Novak, M.A. & K.H. Drewson. 1989. Enriching the lives of captive primates: Issues and problems. In: Housing, Care and Psychological Wellbeing of Captive and Laboratory Primates, E.F. Segal, ed. Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, New Jersey, pp. 161-182.
Oates, J. 1977. The guereza and its food. In: Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behavior in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes, C.H. Clutton-Brock, ed. Academic Press, New York, New York, pp. 275-321.
Oates, J. 1994. The natural history of the African colobine. In: Colobine Monkeys: Their Ecology, Behavior and Evolution, A. Davies & J. Oates, eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 75-128.
Oates, J. & T. Trocco. 1983. Taxonomy and phylogeny of black-and-white colobus monkeys: Inferences from analysis of loud call variation. Folia Primatologica 40: 83-113.
Struhsaker, T.T. 1975. The Red Colobus Monkey. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.
Struhsaker, T.T. & L. Leland. 1987. Colobines: Infanticide by adult males. In: Primate Societies, B.B. Smuts, D.L. Cheney, R.M. Seyfarth, R.W. Wrangham & T.T. Struhsaker, eds. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, pp. 83-97.
Thomas, S. 1991. Population densities and patterns of habitat use among anthropoid primates of the Ituri Forest, Zaire. Biotropica 23: 68-93.
Reporting on a recent primate survey of Guinea-Bissau, Gippoliti & Dell'Omo (1995, 1996) noted that they had found chimpanzees Pan troglodytes nesting in the canopies of oil palms Eleais guineensis palmae and reported that "such nesting behaviour has never before been observed in any chimpanzee population studied so far" (Gippoliti & Dell'Omo, 1996). We would like to add a record for Guinea.
During a biological survey of the Kounounkan Massif, Fourecariah Province, eight chimpanzee nests were noted in the crowns of oil palms located between the villages of San San Kouri and Gabi. Like those seen by Gippoliti & Dell'Omo (1996), the palms' fronds were folded back towards the centre of the crown. As noted by Gippoliti & Dell'Omo, it is difficult to age such structures, and we could not tell if they were of recent origin. Chimpanzees were recorded from the region, however (Barnett et al., 1994; Prangley & Barnett, 1994).
A review of chimpanzee nesting behaviour by Baldwin et al. (1981) does not mention this form of nest building. It is possible that this behaviour is restricted to those marginal chimpanzee populations in West Africa as, so far, all records of this behaviour are from populations living in forest-savannah mosaic and not lowland forest with continuous canopy cover.
Adrian Barnett, Madeleine Prangley
c/o Fauna and Flora International, Great Eastern House, Tenison Road, Cambridge CB1 2DT, UK, Tel: 44-1223-461-471, Fax: 44-1223-461-481.
Mount Nimba Research Station, Mt Nimba, Guinea.
Baldwin, P.J., P.J. Sabatier, M.C. McGrew & C.E.G. Tutin. 1981. Comparisons of nests made by different populations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Primates 22: 474-486.
Barnett, A., M. Prangley, P. Hayman, D. Diawara & J. Koman. 1994. A preliminary survey of Kounounkan Forest, Guinea, West Africa. Oryx 28: 474-486.
Gippoliti, S. & G. Dell'Omo. 1995. Status and conservation of the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes verus in Guinea-Bissau. African Primates 1: 3-5.
Gippoliti, S. & G. Dell'Omo. 1996. Primates of the Cantanhez Forest and the Cacine Basin, Guinea-Bissau. Oryx 30: 74-80.
Prangley, M. & A. Barnett. 1994. A survey of primates in the Kounounkan Forest, Guinea, West Africa. Primate Eye 53: 14-17.
From 1988 to 1991, I conducted a study of the impact of village hunting and trapping on wildlife populations near Makokou in north-eastern Gabon. The province in which the study was located has the lowest human population density in the nation, the largest surface area of Gabon's nine provinces, and has never been commercially logged.
To understand the complex issues regarding hunting and the responses of wildlife, I collected a diverse array of data on both the human and animal populations. I chose one village on each of the three main local roads as study sites. Data on subsistence and income-generating activities were gathered by questionnaire, and game harvested by villagers was recorded. I compared the numbers and distribution of mammals in forest sites exposed to three different levels of hunting pressure by conducting wildlife surveys on a series of 5 km long transects: two near each village study site, two in intermediate zones several miles from each village, and four in remote non-hunted areas over 100 km from Makokou.
Villagers are more dependent than ever on the sale of crops, bushmeat and other forest products for income. The economy of Gabon has been in decline since 1986 when the price of oil, the major source of national revenue, decreased greatly. Unemployment has increased, causing economic problems for village families who regularly received money and material goods from working relatives. Of 90 village households sampled, 68% sold bushmeat and 46% sold fish regularly.
My survey identified four main factors that have altered the attitudes and resource use of rural residents. These are:
* permanent settlement along roads in contrast to a former semi-nomadic lifestyle;
* the replacement of traditional weapons (spears, crossbows, nets) and techniques with shotguns and cable snares;
* the abandonment of traditional beliefs such as food prohibitions, which helped regulate use of natural resources;
* participation in the modern cash economy.
Because many village men must hunt and trap for both subsistence and commercial purposes, there is intense pressure on local wildlife populations. This has the greatest impact on larger-bodied animals. But even populations of some small mammals may be highly disturbed by village activities (Table 1). I saw four to 10 times as many small carnivores (genets, mongooses, palm civets) at non-village sites, and six times as many prosimians (galagos, potto, angwantibo). These differences may be influenced by availability of food sources and habitat types at the different sites, but I believe that hunting is also involved. Although not all local people eat small carnivores, the skins of these species are very valuable.
Table 1. Differences in abundance of selected species between hunted and non-hunted sites near Makokou, north-eastern Gabon.
sites (No/10 km)
Animal populations within 2 km of villages and roads showed the greatest reductions. However, there was a difference between primates, which are killed mainly during day hunts, and ungulates, which are exposed to day and night hunting and trapping. While I observed only the three smallest and most common monkey species on the first 2 km of village transects, I saw the larger-bodied monkeys and occasionally chimpanzees between 3 km and 5 km. Most sightings of the larger species of duikers, however, occurred in the last 1 km on transects, suggesting that ungulates experience more severe hunting pressure than primates.
These data indicate that hunters select larger-bodied prey, and that even small non-target species may be affected by hunting. Permanent settlement has resulted in fixed hunting zones around villages which are systematically exploited until large game has been severely depleted or eliminated. When this occurs, hunting pressure intensifies on smaller species whose populations are eventually reduced, and the hunting zone expands farther into the forest.
There are still extensive areas of uninhabited forest in Gabon with intact animal and plant communities. These populations serve as reservoirs for recruitment and replacement of hunted species and contribute to animal population regulation and forest regeneration. However, we should not think that this abundance of resources and relatively small human population means that there is little need for resource management and conservation in this country. The results of this study show that village hunters in a region with low human population density are seriously impacting wildlife. What is happening where human population density is higher?
Hunting and gun ownership are largely uncontrolled in Gabon, and there is a great need for professional supervision of commercial logging which has accelerated in recent years. Large-scale commercial hunting is already a problem in some areas where logging roads provide access to remote animal populations. But with improved resource management, and training of wildlife and forestry personnel, Gabon can remain a major sanctuary for the African tropical forest biological community.
Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92120, USA.
[From African Wildlife Update, Vol. 4, No. 3]
The aim of this protocol is to help ensure a standard approach to collection and processing of fecal samples from gorilla Gorilla gorilla. It is recommended that the protocol be followed in all routine and research studies on mountain gorillas, whether in Rwanda, Uganda or Zaire. In Rwanda, the method described has proven to be simple, inexpensive, hygienic, reliable, and easily taught to local people.
1. Plastic 35 mm camera film pots (available free of charge from photographic shops in Nairobi and elsewhere). Clear (silver) pots for silverback samples, and black pots for samples from all other animals. Do not re-use film pots.
2. Adhesive labels for pots; apply to the body of the pot, not on the lid.
3. Wooden spatulae for dissecting faeces, picking up samples and transferring samples to pots. Do not use twigs from the forest. Instead use:
a) Wooden tongue depressors (break in half in field, use two halves like knife and fork to open faeces, select sample, etc.
b) Specially prepared bamboo spatulae; utilise the thin strips of bamboo that remain unused after bamboo stems have been cut and trimmed. Bamboo is cut into pieces that fit in a film pot. They are heat-treated in boiling water and dried in the sun or an oven.
The advantages of the bamboo spatulae are that they are cheap, can be made by local people from local materials, and can be easily and hygienically disposed of after use.
4. Labelled plastic bags to transport pots and spatulae (inside the pots) back to the laboratory. Bags can also be used to collect whole faecal masses.
5. When bacteriology is also to be carried out, use medium swabs.
1. Before touching faeces, observe and describe their size, shape and appearance (smell, consistency-score of 1-3, colour--light brown, middle brown, dark brown, plus other combinations as appropriate). If possible, take colour photos if faeces have abnormalities such as presence of mucus and blood.
2. Use spatulae carefully to handle faeces. Assess the amount of drying on surface. Record presence of fly larvae, beetle larvae or other invertebrates (faeces need to be turned over).
3. Open the faeces using spatulae. Check colour, smell, consistency; record fibre (vegetation) content (score of 1-3), presence/absence of invertebrates, etc.
4. Fill pot about half full with faeces taken from within the faecal mass. Samples from the edge are more likely to be contaminated (e.g., with environmental nematodes). Remove samples with spatulae, place sample hygienically in an appropriate (silver or black) pot and label pot. Swabs for bacteriology can also be taken at this time--again from the centre of the faeces.
5. If the whole faecal mass is to be collected (e.g., for weighing, food analysis), it should be picked up using a plastic bag which is then inverted, tied and labelled.
1. In the forest, transport samples in plastic bags as above, in a well insulated container or wrapped in paper.
2. If samples have to be transported by road, try to carry on ice or in a cool place at the back of the vehicle.
3. Either examine samples or store at 4ºC (domestic fridge temperature). Record period of storage as this may influence results.
1. Give samples a reference number and include it on all laboratory sheets and containers.
2. Follow a standard parasitological procedure:
a) Macroscopic appearance--colour, odour, and consistency
b) Low magnification--plant material, animal material and other observations.
c) High magnification--at least two wet preparations in saline.
d) Smear for Cryptosporidium.
3. Other procedures as necessary (e.g., bacteriology).
Where appropriate, store samples or preparations for future reference or submission elsewhere. Keep records of all samples examined, even if material investigation is incomplete or results are apparently negative. The aim of examination is not just to detect parasites or abnormalities, but also to build up a database on the normal appearance and normal variation within mountain gorilla faeces. A standardised approach to collection, transportation, storage and examination is therefore essential. Field and laboratory records should be duplicated at an early stage and copies deposited in a safe place outside Central and Eastern Africa.
NB: This protocol forms part of a manuscript that is being submitted for publication. It should not be reproduced without permission of the author and the Morris Animal Foundation.
John E. Cooper
National Avian Research Centre, P.O. Box 45553, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, Tel: 971-3-747555, Fax: 971-3-747607
TAXON ADVISORY GROUPS
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Established by the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) in 1990, TAGs examine the conservation needs of entire taxa, or groups of related species. Examples of some basic taxonomic groupings for which AZA TAGs exist are: amphibians, felids, hornbills and antelopes. The following TAGs exist for primates: gibbons, great apes, New World monkeys, Old World monkeys and prosimians. Each TAG consists of AZA Species Survival Plan (SSP) coordinators, studbook keepers and other individuals with special expertise in one or more of the species covered by the TAG. Currently, AZA administers over 40 TAGs covering groups of invertebrates, fish, birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians.
Serving as committees of expert advisors, TAGs assist in the selection of appropriate species for AZA conservation programs and provide a forum for discussing husbandry, veterinary, ethical and other issues that apply to entire taxa. Through a process called `regional collection planning,' they recommend species for new AZA studbooks, SSPs and other zoo- and aquarium-based programs, establish priorities for management, research and conservation, and recruit qualified individuals to carry out these activities.
In addition, TAGs examine animal management techniques based on scientific studies, and assist SSP coordinators in developing animal care and husbandry guidelines. Purposely organised along the same lines as the specialist groups of the IUCN-The World Conservation Union's Species Survival Commission (SSC) and BirdLife International's Taxonomic Specialist Groups, AZA TAGs also promote cooperation and sharing of information between AZA and other regional and international conservation programs.
One of the most serious challenges facing zoological professionals today is how to determine which species are most in need of zoo- or aquarium-based conservation programs and how to use the limited exhibition and holding space most efficiently. In the past, personal preferences, the spirit of competition among zoos, and availability often determined which species were acquired and became the focus of scientifically managed captive breeding programs. Today, however, there is a growing appreciation of the need for an organised, broad-based collection planning process that better serves the conservation mission of the North American zoo and aquarium community.
One of the TAGs' primary responsibilities is to evaluate the present North American captive carrying capacity for a given taxonomic group and recommend how this space should be allocated. This strategic planning process results in the development of Regional Collection Plans (RCPs). In developing these plans, TAGs take into account both the limited amount of enclosure space available and the need to maintain animals in populations large enough to ensure their long-term genetic viability and demographic stability. They consider the potential of selected species to contribute to conservation action through education, scientific research, fund raising to support field conservation, and captive breeding for reintroduction. The goal of this careful planning process is that each species and individual animal held at AZA zoos and aquariums will eventually be part of a cooperative population management program and have a defined conservation purpose.
A number of criteria are involved in the regional collection planning process and, depending on the particular taxon in question, various factors will carry different weights. For example, in the case of amphibians and invertebrates, groups which encompass thousands of species, collection planning often takes a short-term, project-orientated approach. In such cases, research potential may carry a greater weight in the selection of species than factors such as public appeal and ability to assist in long-term fund raising. The selection criteria, therefore, are flexible to allow each TAG to work most efficiently. The following criteria are often used as a starting point:
* current and anticipated captive space available;
* current captive population size and composition;
* ability to be maintained and successfully bred in captivity;
* status in the wild;
* sufficient number of founders (individual wild blood lines) available;
* usefulness of the taxon to save habitat and other taxa (i.e., is the taxon a so-called "flagship", "keystone" or "umbrella" species?);
* research potential;
* educational potential;
* public appeal and ability to assist in fund raising to support field conservation;
* uniqueness of the taxa in terms of phylogeny, adaptive strategy, interactions and coevolution with other taxa, ecological approach to survival, cultural appeal or scientific significance;
* ability to survive in human altered ecosystems that are now ubiquitous;
* probability of successful reintroduction to the wild, if appropriate and necessary.
[adapted from AZA Conservation and Science Office flier, June 1995]
Les informations les plus intéressantes de l'année écoulée proviennent sans doute du Parc National d'Odzala (PNO) dans le nord-Congo (Fig. 1). Des recensements réalisés par Magdalena Bermejo et Germain Ilera, indiquant des fortes densités de Gorilla gorilla gorilles dans la zone du nord. Des recensements plus poussées du nord du PNO, jusqu'à présent très peu exploré, au cours de l'année 1995, ont confirmé une abondance exceptionnelle de gorilles, particulièrement dans et autour des nombreuses clairières de part et d'autre de la haute Mamblili. Ces clairières sont similaires à celles décrites par Mike Fay et Claudia Olejniczak dan le Parc National de Nouabale-Ndoki au nord-est du Congo et semblent être maintenues par les visites régulières d'éléphants, buffles, bongos, potamochères, hylochères, gorilles, etc. Certaines ont des sols saturés en permanence, d'autres possèdent des sols périodiquement secs. Certaines révèlent des sols riches en sels minéraux et somblent être utilisées comme salines. Leur taille varie considérablement allant de 30 à 40 m de diametre à plusieurs centaines de mètres. Les gorilles semblent être des visiteurs fréquents de la plupart de ces clairières, attirés apparemment par une variété de monocotolydons sont ils se nourrissent. Comme à Nouabalé-Ndoki, ils ne manifestent aucune hésitation à patauger dans l'eau et la boue pour se nourrir. Non seulement les gorilles semblent visiter les clairières tous les jours, mais, ils ne semblent pas être particulièremet nerveux quand ils sont exposés en zone ouvert, même lorsqu'ils sentent la présence d'un observateur. Les conditions de visibilité sont, donc, idéales, permettant des périodes d'observation prolongées.
Grâce à des images SPOT, images radar, photos aériennes, images vidéo géoréférenciées de haute résolution (prises à partir du Cessna 182 de WCS) ainsi que des prospections au sol, ECOFAC a localisé plus de 50 de ces clairières et cartographie actuellement les plus importantes d'entre elles en terme des visites par gorilles, superficie, végétation, etc. Malheureusement, au moins la moitié d'entre elles sont juste en dehors des limites actuelle du PNO. Dans une de ces clairières plus de 120 éléphants furent vus récemment au cours d'un après-midi d'observation. Dans une autre, également en dehors des limites du parc, un survol effectué par WCS a permis d'identifier une grande clairière à peu près à 40 km au sud ouest de Ouesso où au moins 20 éléphants avaient été récemment abattus, confirmant notre impression que le Click here for Picture
Figure 1. Carte de Parc National d'Odzala, Congo.
braconnage pour l'ivoire dans le nord du Congo est à nouveau en augmentation.
Du fait de l'importance écologique extraordinaire de ces clairières en terme de végétation, et de variété et nombre d'animaux les visitant, un projet de modification des limites du parc sera proposé afin que ces clairières soient intégrées dans l'aire protégée. La réhibilitation de la route Ouesso-Souanké (direction est-oust, parallèle à l'actuelle limite nord du parc) présente actuellement une menace très sérieuse pour la faune du nord du parc. La chasse commerciale au Congo, et dans les pays voisins du Cameroun et RCA (pour l'ivoire mais aussi pour la viande de gibier), s'avère complètement incontrôlée et l'ouverture de cet axe après des années de relative isolation va certainement entrainer une augementation du braconnage dans cette zone.
Il est essentiel qu'ECOFAC établisse une présence permanent dans cette zone critique. Malgré de fortes contraintes logistiques, ECOFAC tente d'atteindre cet objectif par un programme de prospections/patrouilles, l'implantation d'un camp de recherche, et le développement d'activités touristiques.
Dans l'esprit de la plupart des gens, le Congo n'est pas immédiatement perçu comme une destination touristique. Toutefois, ECOFAC pense qu'Odzala propose des prestations si extraordinaires que l'écotourisme offre une réelle opportunité pour contribuer au développement économique des communautés locales, et ce malgré les considérables contraintes inhérentes au Congo--le Congo est un des pays les plus chers en Afrique, et Odzala se situe à 2 journées de véhicules 4x4 de la capitale.
Le parc propose essentiellement 4 types d'attraction:
* les mosaïques savane/forêt dans le sud du parc (promenades à pied)
* 3 ou 4 jours de voyage en remontant la rivière Mambili avec une pirogue motorisée
* visite des plus spectaculaires et accessibles clairières le long de la Mambili
* tourisme de vision gorillas ("à la Virunga").
Cette dernière activité devient possible grâce au travail réalisé par Magdalena Bermejo et Germain Ilera, qui, au cours 2.5 années ont réalisé des progrès remarquables en vue de l'habituation de trois familles de gorilles à Lengui-Lengui et Lossi, une zone de forêt localisée à environ 30 km au sud-ouest du parc. Cette forêt ne possède pas de clairières comme celles décrites dans le nord du parc. Ici, l'habitat dominant est la forêt à Marantacées, charactérisée par un sous-bois extrêmement dense, apprécié par les gorilles (à l'exaspération éternelle de ceux qui essaient de les pister!). Malgré cette végétation dense, il est actuellement possible d'approcher à quelques mètres les familles de gorilles san trop les déranger.
Plusieurs jeunes et sub-adultes sont extrêmement curieux et grimpent dans les arbres pour mieux voir les observateurs. D'excellentes observations sont aussi possibles lorsque toute la groupe, y compris le mâle à dos argenté, se nourrit dans les arbres chargés de fruits.
ECOFAC espère obtenir un financement pour Bermejo et Ilera pour les 2 années à venir afin de compléter le processus d'habituation, compléter la formation de l'équipe de pisteurs et de guides, et démarrer un programme de développement du tourisme, géré, à long-terme, par la communauté locale.
Particulièrement important, pour le succès de cette opération pilote, est le fait que le droit foncier traditionel de la forêt de Lengui-Lengui et Losse (situés hors de l'aire protégée) et reconnu par les communautés locales et par le gouvernement. Les habitants de Lengui-Lengui, les propriétaires de cette forêt, sont prêt à autoriser l'exploitation de "leur" forêt pour le tourisme de vision aux gorilles en échange de revenus économique que cette activité doit générer. Il y a encore un très long chemin à parcourir mais peut-être avons nous gravi la première marche vers un réel example de conservation par les hommes, pour les hommes.
Pour plus d'information, écrir à: Jean-Marc Froment, Magdalena Bermejo, Germain Ilera, Parc National d'Odzala, ECOFAC-Congo, B.P. 62, Brazzaville, Congo, Fax: 242-837655.
ECOFAC B.P. 62, Brazzavile, Tel: 242-833991, Fax: 242-934570.
L'arrivée massive au Kivu de réfugiés Ruandais en
juillet 1994, dont près de 800,000 au nord de Goma, a
entraîné des pressions énormes sur l'environnement, en
particulier sur le Parc National des Virunga. Dans le cadre de l'aide d'urgence
accordée par l'Union Européenne au Zaïre, la
Communauté a entamé dès mai 1995 un Programme
Spécial de Réhabilitation des pays voisins du Rwanda (P.S.R.R.).
Deux volets de ce programme s'adressent spécialement au P.N. Virunga.
Click here for Picture
Figure 1. Le Parc National des Virunga et les aires protégées contiguës en Ouganda et Rwanda.
intitulé "Protection de la couverture boisée dans le Parc
National des Virunga" est pris en charge par une ONG Belge, émanation de
la Faculté Universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux, l'"Aide
au Développement Gembloux" (A.D.G.). L'autre volet, intitulé
"Lutte antibraconnage", est pris en charge par une ONG
Click here for Picture
Figure 2. Secteur sud du Parc National des Virunga: localisation des camps de réfugiés.
Belge, auparavant active au P.N. de l'Akagera (Rwanda), le "Centre International de Formation des Cadres de Développement" (C.I.F.C.D.). Un troisième volet, centré sur la réhabilitation de l'environnement de Bukavu, sort du cadre de cet article.
Un coordinateur, basé à Goma, s'efforce d'harmoniser les réalisations du P.S.R.R. avec celles des Nations Unies (U.N.H.C.R., P.N.U.D.), de la Coopération Allemande (G.T.Z.) et des ONG locales et internationales travaillant sur place.On peut, à la fin 95, dresser un premier bilan des résultats obtenus par le P.S.R.R. dans le P.N. Virunga.
L'U.N.H.C.R. et les nombreuses ONG satellites se sont concentrés dans un premier temps sur les tâches prioritaires, à savoir couvrir les besoins nutritifs, sanitaires et de logement des réfugiés. Ce n'est que progressivement que l'U.N.H.C.R. a pris conscience des déboisements désastreux exercés par les réfugiés dans le Parc National des Virunga, site du Patrimoine Mondial depuis 1979. Dès mai 1995, la Coordination de l'Environnement du H.C.R. conçoit un "plan qui s'inscrit dans une stratégie globale comportant trois orientations principales":
* la promotion des techniques d'économie de bois;
* la fourniture de bois de feu en provenance de forêts (ou de plantations) gérées de manière durable;
* une action éducative et répressive en vue de réduire les prélèvements illicites dans le P.N. Virunga.
L'A.D.G. a repris cette stratégie à son compte et, en parfaite collaboration avec l'U.N.H.C.R. et la G.T.Z., a mis en oeuvre trois types d'action:
Deux actions "foyers améliorés" avaient auparavant été menées, avec des succès variables, dans les camps de Kahindou (GTZ) et Mugunga (RC/ADIS-Afrique). L'ADG a construit près de 25.000 foyers au camp de Kibumba, équipant ainsi près de 60% des foyers de ce camp. Un projet de collaboration avec le HCR et GTZ est à l'étude pour confier à l'ADG la construction et la maintenance des foyers améliorés dans les quatre camps et l'organisation et la sensibilisation aux techniques d'économie de bois.
Une première enquête, longue et difficile (vu les conditions déplorables de sécurité), a permis de recenser objectivement les dégâts causés au PN Virunga: 7.800 ha ont été touchés par le déboisement dont 1.800 ha sont d'ores et déjà rasés.
Plus de 10% du secteur sud du parc sont fréquentés par les réfugiés pour couper du bois. Deux fois par semaine, 80.000 personnes pénètrent ainsi à l'intérieur du parc. A côté des réfugiés récoltant du bois pour leur propre usage (bois de feu et sticks pour la construction des "bunkers"), existent des réfugiés exploitant systématiquement le bois de feu à des fins purement commerciales, à destination de Goma et des villages riverains.
Le braconnage s'est considérablement développé dans le secteur sud et les populations d'éléphants, de gorilles, de buffles et d'antilopes ont considérablement souffert dans la zone entre le Mikeno, le Karisimbi et le Visoke. L'étage des bambous est en passe d'être détruit par les réfugiés (disparu à 50%) menaçant un des habitats du gorille de montagne.
Les actions envisagées dans un proche avenir vont dans deux sens:
* la fourniture de bois de feu à partir des forêts naturelles hors du PN Virunga et l'utilisation de techniques améliorées de carbonisation; on pourra ainsi couvrir les besoins normaux des quatre camps et procéder aux opérations visant les activités commerciales;
* reboisement des zones tampons et mise en place éventuelle d'un projet de reboisement et d'appui à la gestion des ressources naturelles (financement à l'étude par l'Union Européenne).
Alors que les deux actions précédentes s'adressent aux réfugiés, celle-ci vise surtout les populations locales. Parmi les actions en cours ou envisagées, on citera surtout:
* le soutien au reboisement;
* l'éducation environnementale dans les écoles primaires;
* la réalisation de micro-projets sur base d'une enquête sociologique auprès des villages en bordure du PN Virunga.
Dès l'arrivée des réfugiés, de nombreuses armes de guerre provenant du Rwanda furent détenues par des militaires et par des civils environnant le secteur centre du PN Virunga. De nombreux animaux ont été abattus au sud de la Rutshuru. Les spectaculaires concentrations d'hippopotames de la Rutshuru, abattus à l'arme automatique, ont payé un lourd tribut.
Les gardes, impayés depuis de longs mois, ne disposaient plus d'équipement approprié.
Des mai 1995, le volet "lutte anti-braconnage" a agi à plusieurs niveaux:
* Relance de la lutte anti-braconnage par la fourniture de primes, de soins médicaux, de rations de patrouille et de tenues de brousse pour le personnel des secteurs centre et nord.
* Achat de trois véhicules tout-terrain pour les stations de Rwindi, Lulimbi et Mutsora et remise en état du matériel roulant et de chantier existant.
Dans ce cadre, aménagement des anciennes installations (atelier, garage, magasin) du service technique de l'IZCN et gestion du service technique.
* Réparation du bac de Nyamushengero et de la piste d'Ishasha en vue d'une reprise de la lutte anti-braconnage dans ce secteur à très forte intensité de braconnage. Réfection des pistes touristique au nord de la Rutshuru.
* Etudes préalables à la mise en place d'un réseau radiophonique pour standardiser les ondes de l'IZCN et couvrir tout le PN Virunga.
Toutes ces mesures ont eu un impact rapide et le personnel de l'IZCN reprend progressivement la situation en main, in particulier dans le secteur centre.
Si on peut envisager avec un certain optimisme, le proche avenir du secteur centre (et dans une moindre mesure du secteur nord), il n'en est pas de même pour le secteur sud soumis à des pressions très fortes de la part de certains réfugiés s'adonnant sans scrupules à l'exploitation commerciale du bois de feu et de la viande de chasse.
L'action de l'ADG vise à couvrir les besoins minimaux en bois de feu des réfugiés et à entamer des actions compensatoires (reboisements, micro-projets, ...) au profit de la population Zaïroise locale. L'IZCN, malgré l'appui matériel de la GTZ et du PAM, est incapable d'arrêter l'exploitation commerciale du bois et de la viande de chasse. Sans mesures radicales, il faut s'attendre à une évolution catastrophique des habitats et espèces propres au secteur sud. Des mesures nécessaires, on retiendra essentiellement:
* la suppression du camp de Kibumba et l'évacuation des réfugiés dans un secteur moins sensible ou;
* l'élargissement du mandat du Contingent Zaïrois de Sécurité dans le camps par l'adjonction d'un contingent supplémentaire de 150 hommes sous la tutelle des Nations Unies.
Si rien n'est fait en ce sens, il faut s'attendre à ce que le PN Virunga, un des plus précieux joyaux de la conservation à l'échelle mondiale, soit rapidement amputé d'un secteur abritant des richesses biologiques uniques et d'une valeur inestimable.
Faculté Universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux.
[from Canopée, No. 7]
In January, 1995, we were back in Rwanda with a new temporary base for the Volcano Veterinary Centre in the capital, Kigali. The previous year had seen turmoil in Rwanda with the outbreak of fighting on 6 April, following the death of the President, and the massacres that ensued. We, ourselves, had been evacuated from Rwanda via Zaire, Burundi and Kenya. When we first returned to Rwanda in August 1994, after the cessation of hostilities, we found that the Centre had been badly damaged and looted. The military and political situation made working from our former base at Kinigi, on the edge of the Volcanoes National Park, impossible. We therefore set up a centre of operations in Kigali, from which we gradually redeveloped the veterinary service for the gorillas.
In February and March 1995, we embarked upon a number of interesting cases. First we were called to the Virunga National Park, Zaire, to investigate and help a young gorilla that had been caught in a snare, and was still carrying the wire on its limb. The animal was successfully immobilised, the snare was removed and an uneventful recovery followed. Then an adult female gorilla in one of the habituated groups (Sabinyo) in the Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda, required attention because of signs of ill health. Following detailed monitoring of this animal for over a week, at the end of which her infant died, a decision was made to immobilise her in order to carry out diagnostic investigations. Blood and other samples were taken which confirmed that she had severe internal disorders. She recovered successfully from the immobilisation and returned to the wild, but 12 d later was found dead. A post-mortem examination confirmed severe pathology affecting many body systems.
In March, four gorillas were found dead in Bwindi-Impenetrable Forest National Park, Uganda. Post-mortem examinations were carried out in collaboration with Dr Liz Macfie. These revealed that the animals had been killed by spears and, possibly, arrows. Findings from one female suggested that she may have had a youngster, but the latter was never located or confirmed.
At the end of June 1995, we left the project and prepared to hand over to my successor, Dr Jonathan Sleeman. As an interim measure, cover was provided by Dr Jim Foster, the Project Co-ordinator, and help was given as required by Dr Macfie, who was based in Uganda. About this time, two interventions (immobilisations) were necessary in the Susa group in Rwanda. These were performed by Dr Macfie.
In July, the remains of a gorilla were found in Zaire at the edge of the Virunga National Park. The animal was a silverback, believed to be Salama. A full post-mortem examination was not possible because of severe decomposition. However, death due to shooting could not be ruled out. Later in August another dead gorilla was found in Zaire. This was Luwawa, a silverback. A post-mortem examination revealed that he had died of a single gunshot wound.
In August, two gorillas, members of the Rugabo group, were found dead in Zaire. Post-mortem examinations were carried out by Dr Sleeman, who was able to confirm that these animals had been shot.
An intervention was necessary in September, when a possible snare was seen on a 5 wk old infant in Beetsme's group in Rwanda. Dr Sleeman immobilised the mother and examined the infant. The "snare" proved to be hair wrapped around two digits and cutting deeply into the tissues. In October, a young male, Gwiza, in Shinda's group in Rwanda was noted to have diarrhoea. Dr Sleeman observed the animal and judged that it showed signs of abdominal pain. Samples were taken for laboratory examination but the gorilla recovered without treatment.
In November there were reports that two animals had snares on their arms. These animals were Nyagakangaga, a juvenile male, and Impanga, a juvenile female. The snare on Nyagakangaga was removed by the trackers without immobilisation. However, Dr Sleeman immobilised Impanga and was able to remove the snare. She made an apparently uneventful recovery. On a previous occasion, she lost her left foot from a snare.
Finally, in December, Nyabushizi, a juvenile male in Susa group, was found to have a snare on his hand. Dr Macfie, assisted by Dr Gladys Kalema, visited from Uganda and immobilised the animal. The snare was removed, but the gorilla subsequently lost his hand.
As can be seen from the above, 1995 was a busy year for the Volcano Veterinary Centre, now renamed the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Centre. While it is difficult to relate veterinary cases in one year to another, the number of snares removed during 1995, coupled with the apparent increase in snares placed in the forest, suggest that the aftermath of the war in 1994, and the ensuing social unrest, probably contributed to more poaching in the area.
The most significant event of 1995 from the point of view of conservation of the mountain gorilla was the resumption of deliberate killing of animals after 10 year of relative safety. In the case of the Bwindi-Impenetrable Forest, the killing was by local people using traditional methods, but the animals found dead in Zaire had been shot, probably indicative of the ready availability of firearms or other factors relating to military activity in the area. In this context, it must not be overlooked that a group of Italian expatriates visiting the gorillas had themselves been killed during the year and also that the toll of human suffering associated with the refugee camps and displaced Zairois, remained very high. The plight of the gorillas parallels the tragedy affecting human beings and the whole environment in that region of Africa.
This summary of events in 1995 indicates the need for continued vigilance if mountain gorillas are to be protected. The Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Centre, funded by the Morris Animal Foundation, continues to play a vital role in this respect. The work is, however, multi-disciplinary, as it also includes biologists from the Dian Fossy Gorilla Fund, local Rwandan, Zairois and Ugandan authorities, and other individuals and organisations. Those involved believe that the saving of the mountain gorilla is vital, not only in its own right, but because it will, in its wake, help to save the afromontane forest environment of the Virunga Volcanoes which is so important in terms of biodiversity and human development.
John & Margaret Cooper
National Avian Research Center, P.O. Box 45553, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirate, Tel: 971-3-747555, Fax 971-3-747607
Due largely to the efforts of Karl Ammann, the World Society for Protection of Animals (WSPA) has published a comprehensive report about the effect of the bushmeat trade on Africa's great apes. Slaughter of the Apes features full colour photography and investigations by Karl Ammann.
On 22 March 1996, the African-Pacific-Caribbean (ACP)-European Union Joint Assembly in Namibia passed a WSPA resolution calling for political action to end the hunting of apes for food in Central and West Africa.
Members of European Parliaments (MEPs) and government representatives from 70 countries who voted on the resolution reportedly were appalled to learn of the scale of the slaughter and European involvement in facilitating it. European logging companies play a significant role in the bushmeat trade.
The WSPA report shows that the hunting of great apes in Africa's tropical forests is escalating out of control, due largely to logging activities. Logging roads form the foundation of the bushmeat trade, providing hunters with easy access to remote forest areas. Likewise, logging trucks transport bushmeat to major towns and cities for sale. At the same time, logging operations have dramatically increased the human population in these regions, and logging employees comprise a significant market for bushmeat themselves.
"What it boils down to," Mr. Ammann says, "is that the logging infrastructure has made the commercialisation of the bushmeat trade possible. The bushmeat trade and forest exploitation are the gravest conservation crises facing Africa since the ivory crisis. The main culprits are western-owned logging companies and ultimately the consumers buying the timber. It will not be easy to change Africa at the grassroots level; it should be a lot easier to force the logging companies to change their ways of doing business."
Among other initiatives, the report recommends the establishment of an international organisation to govern logging policies. It also calls for suspending the sale of the MACC "chevrotine" cartridge, commonly used for hunting large animals, notably great apes. According to Mr. Ammann, a moratorium is now in effect prohibiting the sale of the chevrotine cartridge. He will return to West Africa in September to investigate the impact of the moratorium on ape hunting.
Contact: WSPA, 2 Langley Lane, London SW8 1TJ, UK, Tel: 44-171-793-0208 or 44 171 793 0540, Fax: 44 171 793 0208.
[adapted from Pro Bonobo, Vol. 2, No. 1]
In April 1996, the Cameroon Ministry of Environment and Forests (MINEF) conducted a seminar on The Impact of Forest Exploitation on Wildlife. The meeting, commonly referred to as the Bushmeat Conference, was sponsored jointly by MINEF and the World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA), and was organised by the Yaounde based NGO Enviro-Protect. The conference took place in Bertoua, capital of the Eastern Province where logging roads have opened up thousands of square miles of new forests to exploitation and put countless primates and other wildlife at risk.
At the invitation of MINEF and at the request of ASP president Dr Joe Erwin and Conservation chairman Dr Ramon Rhine, I attended the meetings in Bertoua in order to assess the situation. This overview report on the Bushmeat Conference and the bushmeat crisis was presented at the ASP/IPS Congress in Madison, Wisconsin, in August 1996. Additional articles detailing problems, challenges and solutions are in press and being written for future editions of African Primates, and other journals and newsletters. While this preliminary work focuses on the great apes, it is important to note that all primates are hunted for food and represent over 20% of the bushmeat commerce.
This summary will touch on three elements: validation of the bushmeat crisis, efforts to control the commercial bushmeat trade, and actions ASP and IPS can take.
There can no longer be any doubt--the bushmeat crisis is all too real. At least 75% of the more than eighty attendees at the Bushmeat Conference in Bertoua were Cameroon Government personnel and local leaders. From the national Director of Wildlife and Protected Areas to the Mayor of Moloundu, speakers and participants agreed that very large numbers of primates and other endangered and protected animals are being shot, butchered and sold for meat in a commercial trade that stretches across Cameroon and throughout neighbouring countries. Concensus of experience strongly supported the scope of the crisis. Data that Karl Ammann and WSPA presented were considered a fair representation of the situation. The conclusion was accepted that continued bushmeat hunting in general, and great ape slaughter in particular, was unsustainable at present levels, and would become an irreversible wildlife disaster if permitted to continue and accelerate at the current rate. Destruction and dispersal of gorilla and chimpanzee populations is already complete in some areas, fast approaching in others. By way of perspective, each year in Cameroon more gorillas are eaten than now live in the Virunga Volcanoes, and more chimpanzees than at Gombe Stream and Mahale, or in all the zoos and laboratories of North America. The government of Cameroon wants to stop this slaughter and protect their natural heritage. Government leaders at the Bertoua Conference were clear that they cannot begin to achieve their goals without strong international support. It was agreed that while the exposure of the bushmeat crisis by Ammann and WSPA's European campaign was at first embarrassing, the high level of political and public concern that effort produced is already paying off in terms of global willingness to help Cameroon and other countries to confront the crisis directly and cut back bushmeat dependence in the long term. A major missing link in this world response is the United States.
Cameroon officials at the Bushmeat Conference indicated that they can not even protect existing national parks and reserves, let alone police the massive open and exploited forests. Forestry guards are few and very ill-equipped. Local police cannot be counted on to enforce wildlife laws. The people of Cameroon, from forest dwellers to the President, eat bushmeat, and in many cases, are unaware or unconcerned about protected species. Though bushmeat, including apes and monkeys, is two to three times more costly than domestic meat, it is still preferred. Ranching of game animals, like cane rat and duiker, is being tested, but will take massive development to cut into the market share of wild-killed game. In many areas well over half the animal protein consumed is bushmeat.
In response to the plea for US support, we have established The Bushmeat Project as department of The Biosynergy Institute, a not-for-profit organisation in California. With support of conservationists and other professionals, we are drafting proposals and organising North American resources to support local and national bushmeat programmes that will enable Cameroon and other African forest nations to take control of the bushmeat industry and replace it with domestic commerce that is wildlife friendly and suitable to the ecosystems and cultures in the region. Efforts by other NGOs to direct new funds and talent explicitly towards the bushmeat crisis are urgently needed. This includes work from the forest logging camps to the World Bank. The Bushmeat Project will be an impartial clearing house for information and a support to collaborative organisation of any efforts that will help the people of West and Central Africa to turn crisis into opportunity, and assure that the natural and cultural heritage of the region will thrive.
The Cameroon Bushmeat Conference report and forthcoming proposals to establish local and national bushmeat programmes will provide many more options for ASP and IPS involvement. At this time there are five action steps that we should consider:
1. Distribute this preliminary summary report on the African bushmeat crisis to the ASP and IPS membership and encourage primatologists to use the Bushmeat Project Website at http//biosynergy.org/bushmeat/ to keep abreast of developments and to post abstracts of relevant research and project activities.
2. Make the bushmeat crisis a first priority issue on the ASP and IPS Conservation Committee agendas for the coming year. In particular, seek ways to raise funds and distribute them directly to African nationals as awards for completion of successful projects aimed at stopping the slaughter of apes and other protected and endangered animals that are eaten.
3. Urge other organisations, like the American Association of Zoos and Aquariums, to form partnerships with NGOs in Cameroon and across the forest region of Africa, building and maintaining wildlife sanctuaries and education centres to care for the orphans of the bushmeat trade and to engender positive conservation values in the local people so that they will stop eating the meat of protected animals.
4. Build liaisons with other American NGOs to help influence the World Bank to stick to its own environment and wildlife protection rules and resist the timber industry bid for 60 million dollars to build a new road into south-eastern forests that will double the forest bushmeat problem in Cameroon with a stroke of the pen, and leave the people with little more than a long term debt. Lobby the Bank to use the money instead to help the people develop ecologically safe domestic protein products.
5. Write and send official Letters of Commendation from primatological societies and conservation organisations to those who have already achieved remarkable success in confronting and dealing with the African forest bushmeat crisis:
* Mr Karl Ammann for his 8 year effort to document the expansion of the commercial bushmeat trade and his leadership in bringing public, professional and political awareness of the crisis to the level at which responsible and effective action can now be taken.
* World Society for the Protection of Animals for their 2 year campaign that has backed up Ammann's work and achieved global recognition and political resolve to stop the slaughter of the apes through directives from the highest levels of international agencies.
* The Joint Congress of the European Union and African-Pacific-Caribbean Nations (EU-APC) for recognising the terrible scope of the great ape bushmeat crisis and resolving to place sanctions on the timber industry and involved governments, demanding they take action to stop the killing of protected and endangered animals for commercial meat trade.
* The CEO of the MACC Corporation for responding to public and political pressure and suspending manufacture and sale in Congo and Cameroon of its "chevrotine" cartridge that is highly effective for shooting gorillas.
* The European Union's Forestry Stewardship Council for making bushmeat control part of the timber certification process and asking Ammann and WSPA to accompany the NGO "Société General de Securité" (SGS) in monitoring the audits that assess logging operations, to help assure compliance with protected species laws.
* The President, Ministers, government workers and people of Cameroon for heeding the call, convening the Bertoua Conference on the Impact of Forest Exploitation on Wildlife, and having the courage and will to declare that the bushmeat trade has become a crisis for great apes and other protected and endangered animals, and that Cameroon will take the lead in stopping the slaughter, controlling the bushmeat industry, and replacing it with domestic commerce that is wildlife-friendly and suitable to the ecosystems and cultures in the region.
These small but significant action steps on the part of ASP and IPS will signal to the American and world conservation communities that we as primatologists are willing and able to recognise the contributions of persons and organisations in all fields to the protection and conservation of non-human primates and all wildlife threatened by the growth and impact of human commerce. It will also help to signify our own resolve to work in collaboration with anyone whose concerns are, foremost, the appreciation and well-being of the other animals struggling for survival in a shrinking natural world.
Anthony L. Rose
Executive Director, The Biosynergy Institute, The Bushmeat Project, P.O. Box 488, Hermosa Beach, CA 90254, USA, Tel: 1-310-379-1470, Fax: 1-310-379-7042
Web page: http//biosynergy.org/bushmeat/
The Cross River National Park, containing 40% of Nigeria's remaining forest, is threatened with logging by WEMCO, a Hong Kong-based company. Although officially operating in the buffer zone, WEMCO has built a new pulp mill which will require more timber than can be supplied by the concession area. The company has already faced criticism for illegal logging elsewhere in Nigeria, and the Ogum State Commissioner for Agriculture and Water Resources has said that "These people seem to have no concern or respect for any rule of law or ethics of any kind". Some villagers welcome the logging operation as a source of revenue, while others fear the permanent loss of non-timber forest products such as the edible Mimusop oil. Now a coalition of NGOs has taken WEMCO to court to explain the proposed industrial activities in Cross River before operations begin.
[from Arborvitae, 3]
Political changes in the USA may result in a serious weakening of the existing environmental laws. One of the most ominous spectres is the fate of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), the country's pre-eminent law on wildlife and the environment.
To date, 956 native species and 560 "foreign" species are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), which was adopted in 1973. In regard to the native species the Act protects habitat, prohibits "take" and regulates trade. The protection for the species found outside the USA is limited to varying degrees of import restriction.
The Act has long been criticised by people who believe their right to use
natural resources is unfairly constrained by its provisions. The anti-
ESA rumblings of hunters, shrimp fishermen, water and power authorities, timber companies, real estate agents, cattlemen and private property advocates, which had risen to a crescendo in recent years, have been met with sympathy by the new congressional leaders. These new legislators assumed their positions after the Republican Party won the majority of seats in the November 1994 elections.
With the full support of these new leaders, Congress enacted in April 1995 a moratorium on listing species under the ESA. Only during last-minute budget negotiations in April 1996 did the Congress finally agree that the moratorium could be waived.
The 1-year moratorium left more than 250 species ready for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service still on the waiting list. Among those waiting are the Pacific coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, the Florida black bear Ursus americanus floridanus and dozens of species of plants.
Key among the new leaders are Alaskan Republican Congressman Don Young and Idaho Republican Senator Dirk Kempthorne. Young became Chairman of the House Committee on Resources, which has jurisdiction over the ESA, and Kempthorne took the helm of the Senate subcommittee overseeing endangered species.
Both Congressmen have since introduced legislation to "fix" those provisions of the Endangered Species Act that they believe over-burden business interests.
TRAFFIC-USA and WWF-US, in co-operation with other US non-governmental groups, undertook in 1995 an analysis of the proposed legislation and, more specifically, its potential impact upon how the USA approaches the conservation of endangered and threatened wildlife species at home.
The analysis, which provided key data and information for WWF-US staff to use in testimony at congressional hearing, found that both proposed bills would weaken protection for native endangered species and their habitats within the USA, and would seriously dilute the effectiveness of the Act's provisions that relate to foreign species and international trade in wildlife.
The analysis' key findings include that Congressman Young's bill--H.R. 2275, the Endangered Species Conservation and Management Act of 1995--would make it very difficult for the USA to fulfil its obligations under CITES, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. The Convention, which the USA joined in 1975, requires member countries to prohibit or regulate trade in more than 34,000 species of plants and animals.
Congressman Young's bill would severely limit the authority of federal officials to seize and impound wildlife and wildlife products exported or imported in violation of CITES, if they are not listed under the ESA. Moreover, the bill would also make it more difficult to list any species already in the CITES Appendices by first requiring a "finding" based on substantial evidence that the Convention does not provide adequate protection for the species in question.
In addition, written consent from relevant foreign governments would have to be obtained before the USA could place a foreign species on the US endangered or threatened species list, or issue a regulation for the conservation of a foreign species, including those already listed under CITES. Only an order from the US President could override lack of consent.
The bill would also prohibit the USA from taking any enforcement action based solely on a CITES Secretariat notification or resolution of the 131 Parties to CITES. This restriction would prevent the USA from acting in a timely fashion in an emergency involving illicit trade in wildlife.
The other bill--S. 1364, the Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1995--was introduced by Senator Kempthorne in October 1995 and contains similar provisions.
The analysis showed that these amendments, if approved, would not only cripple the USA's ability to implement CITES, but also make it difficult to add foreign species to the country's endangered species list.
If these bills had been in effect in 1973, the USA would have had to obtain the concurrence of China, the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Nepal before listing the tiger.
The analysis revealed that if a country allowed hunting of any critically endangered species, the ESA could no longer provide a flat prohibition on the importation of trophies of threatened species--a change southern African countries have advocated. Instead, Young's bill would create a "rebuttable presumption" that sport hunting of a species allowed under the laws of a range state is beneficial to the survival of that species. As a result, prohibitions would not apply to hunting trophies as long as they are taken and exported in compliance with the laws of the country in question.
Congressman Young's bill was approved in October 1995 by his committee in a 27-17 vote without significant change in the provisions affecting foreign species.
However, the Speaker of the House of Representatives has yet to bring the bill before the full House. Since then, two members of Young's committee, including New Jersey Republican Congressman Jim Saxton, who is also Chairman of the Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife and Oceans, have introduced moderate bills to amend the ESA. Saxton is among those committee members who voted against Young's bill in October.
In the Senate, no action has yet been taken on the proposed bills. However, Republican Senator John Chafee of Rhode Island is a long-time friend of the environment and Chairman of the Environment and Public Works Committee, which has jurisdiction over the ESA.
Debate is likely to continue through this year, and possibly into the next. The battle still promises to be an uphill one for environmentalists, but polls show voters are worried that Republicans are too eager to roll back environmental protections and, in an election year, elected officials are leery of unpopular legislative changes. There is reason to hope the proposals to prevent the USA from meeting its international commitments under CITES can be defeated.
Gina De Ferrari
Director, TRAFFIC-USA, 1250 24th Street NW, Washington, DC 20037, USA, Tel: 1-202-293-4800, Fax: 1-202-775-8287,
[from TRAFFIC Dispatches, May 1996]
Wamba is unique because it is the only research site where a large population of bonobos and humans co-exist and share extensive use of a forest. It is currently the only great ape preserve monitored and maintained by local inhabitants. Bonobos are abundant at Wamba and well-habituated. Local taboos against hunting bonobos still exist around Wamba, in contrast to most other parts of Zaire.
Research at Wamba has been in progress for 21 year, hence the identities and life histories of many bonobos are known. Five groups of bonobos have been identified and studied, and three groups have been habituated, allowing a better understanding of inter-group relationships than is currently possible anywhere else in Zaire.
Observers' overriding impression was that of a very densely populated haven for bonobos that currently is in excellent condition. Many bonobos exist in this area and all appear to be extremely healthy and able to find food quite easily. It is the Bonobo Protection Fund's (BPF) hope to expand the Luo Reserve from its current size of 150 km2 to 4,000 km2. Adjacent to the protected area of the Luo Reserve, where bonobos were plentiful only 10 year ago, there are now no bonobos.
The BPF was recently awarded a grant of $50,000 from the Bingham Foundation to continue and expand the efforts to educate and assist the local populace of Wamba to meet their necessities and move into a modern economy, while conserving bonobos and bonobo habitat.
Contact: Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, Director, The Bonobo Protection Fund, Georgia State Language Center, 3401 Pantherville Road, Decatur, GA 30334, USA, Tel: 1-404-244-5825, Fax: 1-404-244-5752.
[excerpted form ProBonobo, Vol. 1, No. 2]
The Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) has published the 16th edition of the Current Primate Field Studies Supplement to the Society's newsletter, Primate Eye (supplement to No. 58, February 1996). Julia M. Casperd compiled this publication, which lists all current studies by country, and includes the name of the field site, the species studied, the research team, the starting date of the project, and its duration and status (planned, current and completed), the aims, and the correspondence and field addresses of the researchers involved.
As pointed out in the introduction, surprisingly, the number of field studies registered dropped by more than 50%, from 307 to 144, since the 1994 issue of the supplement. Reasons for this are partially due to sampling bias. The figures from the 1994 issue were artificially inflated due to the backlog of entries received from a mailing in 1993. This is reflected in an increase in the number of current studies in the 1995 survey (88% compared to 70% in the 1994 survey), and a reduction in completed projects from 24% of all entries in 1994 to 6% in 1995. A number of studies providing inadequate information were also left out.
The geographical distribution of the field projects was found to be fairly even. Africa, Asia and the Americas have the majority (27-31%) with the least in Madagascar (11%). Asia has the most ongoing studies (73%), followed by Africa (66%), the Americas (68%) and Madagascar (50%). Conservation and ecology were the most frequent aims (37% of all studies), and behavioural ecology accounted for 28%. The Cercopithecidae are receiving the most attention (39% of all entries which specified actual species), followed by the Cebidae (26%). No field studies were listed for Daubentoniidae, Lorisidae and Tarsiidae.
This survey also includes a breakdown of the different species currently being studied in each region in relation to their conservation status according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. Most field studies are being carried out on ubiquitous species that are not threatened, 12% deal with endangered species and 31% deal with vulnerable species. Only about one-third of all studies focus on threatened species.
Projects are listed for 16 countries in Africa as follows: Algeria-1, Botswana-1, Cameroon-2, Côte d'Ivoire-1, Gabon-2, Ghana-1, Guinea-1, Kenya-9, Namibia-1, Nigeria-2, Rwanda-2, Sierra Leone-1, South Africa-2, Tanzania-7, Uganda-4, Zaire-7. This is undoubtedly still an understatement of the real extent of current field studies of Old World primates.
This supplement is most valuable in assessing the status of field research efforts, especially in terms of conservation and the occurrence and status of primates in protected areas. Julia Casperd is to be congratulated on this heroic job of winkling out information and organising this survey, the accuracy of which depends solely on the willingness of field researchers to dedicate 10 min of their time to supply the necessary information.
The next survey will be published in February 1998. Please send information on your field projects, using the simple one-page form available on page 23 of African Primates 1(1), or from the address below. The deadline for receiving forms for inclusion in the 1988 supplement is 1 December 1997. Copies of the 1995 edition of Current Primate Field Studies are available for [sterling] 5.00 each.
Contact: Julia M. Casperd, Department of Psychology, University of Liverpool, Eleanor Rathbone Building , Myrtle Street, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK, Tel: 44-151-794-2957, Fax: 44-151-794-2945.
[adapted from Neotropical Primates Vol. 4, No.1]
Click here for Picture
I write to you in fury and shame. I hope that by the time you read this the problem will be solved and the shame erased--but as of now, the Untied States has halved its contribution to CITES. The Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species is one of the most idealistic treaties signed for the preservation of the world's riches and beauty. It is the only international instrument to save individual species. The USA pays 25% of the core budget of the treaty secretariat, reconfirmed at the Fort Lauderdale CITES Convention of 1994. It amounts to $1.3 million this year, an almost invisible sum for the US government--compare it to the $1 billion worth of wildlife and wildlife parts that our country imports annually. Our State Department has just informed CITES that the US will pay only $700,000. This is a serious embarrassment when the year is already a third over: the CITES Secretariat had operated believing the US would honour its pledge. I should add that this is not the USA's own enforcement budget, which comes from the Department of the Interior, but the State Department's commitment for the international treaty itself.
Why is CITES important? It is a legal treaty to stop the international exploitation of all our heritage. Rhinoceroses and tigers now top the world's list of showy species near extinction. For us primatologists, it deals with orang-utans and gorillas, marmosets for the US pet trade, and monkey bones for Chinese medicine. CITES is the pledge that countries will not attack each other's wildlife.
It is not perfect. I can groan at the paperwork required to bring in a few tufts of lemur fur for DNA analysis. Joe Erwin worries that primates which are on Appendix II (species that can be exported from the wild with a permit from the country of origin) might be placed too quickly on Appendix I (export banned for commercial purposes except from captive breeding colonies)--that we might act not because the species is rare, as CITES intends, but just out of sympathy. Celestine Ravoarinoromanga, and all her counterparts in exporting countries, daily face the question whether to issue or deny permits for reptiles and succulent plants and sometimes lemurs, with almost no reliable estimates of wild populations to back up their decisions. And smugglers get around CITES controls--but not always, and not always easily. Sometimes they wind up in jail, if they are international, or even dead, if they are locals who do the internationals' dirty work.
CITES does not touch what happens within each country: the bushmeat markets and the habitat holocaust, or conversely, sustained local use, parks, wilderness, watersheds, wildlife saved for the people of one's own country. CITES is international. But CITES, for all its weaknesses, is an attempt to say that we live in one world which is our responsibility.
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA, Tel: 1-609-258-5381, Fax: 1-604-258-1334
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. edu
[excerpted from IPS Newsletter, Vol. 23, No. 1]
Click here for Picture Click here for Picture The joint International Primatological Society/American Society of Primatologists meeting was held in Madison, Wisconsin, and hosted by the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center (WRPRC) of the University of Wisconsin, from 11-16 August 1996. The Director of the WRPRC, Dr John P. Hearn, was also Congress Chairman. This was one of the largest IPS Congresses ever. Attended by approximately 1,300 people, 544 talks were given and 259 posters were presented covering all fields of primate research. Forty-three countries were represented. The enormous success of this, the 16th IPS Congress, was due to a large number of people running, and participating in, the various organizational committees, under the highly competent and friendly leadership of the Congress Coordinator Edi Chan of the WRPRC. The executive Committee was run by Dr Hearn, and included the chairs of the Scientific Program Committee and Subcommittees, along with Edi Chan, Melinda Carr and Ray Hamel.
A one-and-a-half day primate conservation symposium was held during the joint IPS/ASP Congress in Madison, Wisconsin, 11-16 August 1996. It was organised by IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG) Chairman, Russell A. Mittermeier, and Deputy Chairman, William R. Konstant, along with the Regional Vice Chairpersons, Ardith Eudey (Asia), Tom Butynski (Africa), and Anthony Rylands and Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna (Neotropics). There were three parts to the Symposium. The first, held during the afternoon of 13 August, was entitled "Primate Conservation at the End of the 20th Century--a 20-Year Retrospective and a Look at the Next Millennium".
Russell Mittermeier introduced the Symposium and its objectives, and reviewed global primate distributions, priority countries and regions, and the current conservation status of the species and subspecies. Special attention was given to the role of the World Conservation Union, the Species Survival Commission, and the Primate Specialist Group. The history of the PSG was reviewed, beginning with its establishment in the late 1960s under Barbara Harrison. The PSG's activities were highlighted with the development of the Global Strategy for Primate Conservation in 1978, the World Wildlife Fund Primate Program, begun in 1979, the Primate Action Plans of the late 1980s and early 1990s, and the creation of networks for primate conservation around the world. Mittermeier reviewed the role of these activities in the past, their relevance to the 20th Century, and the relative impacts of the principal threats to primates, and their prospects in the 21st Century.
William Konstant provided a historical review of funding sources for primate conservation, including multi-lateral development banks, national and international non-governmental organisations, US and foreign government agencies, individual and institutional foundations, zoos and aquariums, corporations and private donors.
The remainder of the first part of this symposium was given over to regional reports of PSG activities and the situations in the Neotropics, (Anthony Rylands & Ernesto Rodriguez-Luna), Asia (Ardith A. Eudey), Africa (Tom Butynski), and Madagascar (Jorg Ganzhorn & Patricia Wright), along with a history of the role of IPS, ASP, the Primate Society of Great Britain, and institutions in primate conservation (David J. Chivers), a review of the development and application of tools and processes for scientifically-based management strategies for threatened species, based on small population and conservation biology (Susie Ellis), and, finally the role of zoos in primate conservation (Anne Baker).
The second part of the symposium, held during the morning of 14 August and entitled "Case Studies of the Critically Endangered and the Future", reviewed the conservation status of the primates most likely to go extinct early in the 21st Century. Recent estimates by IUCN indicate that almost half of all the primate species (114 of 250) are of conservation concern, and roughly one in five (43 of 250) are considered critical or endangered. These taxa are concentrated in Madagascar, the Atlantic forest region of Brazil, northern Colombia, West Africa, China, Vietnam, and other parts of South-east Asia. Considering both species and subspecies, current estimates show that 33% of the primate taxa are threatened (204 of approximately 620) and that 103 (16.6%) are endangered or critically endangered.
Twelve papers were presented which reviewed the current status of endangered and critically endangered species and species groups around the world: the lion tamarins of Brazil's Atlantic forest (A.B. Rylands & C. Valladares Padua); Brazil's largest endemic mammal, the muriqui (K.B. Strier & G.A.B. da Fonseca); the cotton-top tamarin in Colombia (L.H. Giraldo, A. Savage & L.H. Soto); the mountain gorilla, prospects in conditions of extreme political instability (H.D. Steklis, C.N. Gerald & S. Madry); the critically endangered red colobus subspecies in western Equatorial Africa, Cameroon, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya (J.F. Oates); Madagascar's lemurs (K.E. Glander); the remarkable snub-nosed monkeys of China (R.M. Ren, R.C. Kirkpatrick & N.G. Jablonski); the Vietnamese snub-nosed monkeys, langurs and gibbons (X.C. Le); the Javan gibbons (J. Supriatna, N. Andayani, D. Buchori, D. Supriyadj & S. Sueryadj); the four primates endemic to the Mentawai Islands (A. Fuentes); and the Japanese macaques of Yakushima (D.A. Hill & T. Maruhashi). Ajith Kumar, who was to review the status of the lion tailed macaque of the Western Ghats in India, was unfortunately unable to attend. In his place S.M. Mohnot talked about the Indo-U.S. Primate Project. The reviews provided success stories and optimism in many conservation efforts, but in some the conclusions were discouraging, notably concerning the red colobus and mountain gorillas in Africa, and the situation in Vietnam.
The final part of the symposium, during the afternoon of 14 August, involved a round-table discussion concerning priorities for the future, an action plan agenda, the role of major multilateral financing and development agencies, and the prospects for survival of threatened species around the world.
The PSG officers gratefully acknowledge the support of the Congress Chairman, Dr John Hearn, and the Chair of the Scientific Program Committee, Dr David Abbott, for allotting a morning and two afternoon sessions for this most important symposium. It was extremely well attended, and demonstrated the high priority given to primate conservation concerns by the International Primatological Society and the American Society of Primatologists. The proceedings of the symposium will be published in a special edition of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group's journal--Primate Conservation.
Russell A. Mittermeier
Chairman--IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Conservation International, 1015 Eighteenth Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington D.C. 20036, USA, Tel: 1-202-429-5660, Fax: 1-202-887-0192
FUNDING AND TRAINING
The Education Committee of the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) has compiled an Undergraduate Programs in Primatology booklet. Request copies from: G. Lubach, Chair, Education Committee, Harlow Primate Lab, 22 North Charter Street, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53715, USA.
The Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research was published in the January 1996 issue of Laboratory Primate Newsletter 35: 21-30. An addendum was published in the April 1996 issue of Laboratory Primate Newsletter 35:19.
A 2 year fellowship of approximately $8,000/yr will be awarded to the outstanding application for dissertation research in nonhuman primate growth and development. The candidate must have completed all requirements for the PhD degree except doctoral research. Preference will be given to studies emphasising development to maturation. The application should be made using the US Public Health Service form 398 format and will be judged by a five-person committee. Applications will be due 15 September 1997.
Applications should be mailed to: Dr Margaret R. Clarke, Department of
Anthropology, 1021 Audubon Street, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118,
USA. Questions regarding this award may be directed to the Chair of the
Committee, Dr Margaret R. Clarke, Tel: 1-504-865-5336, Fax:
We are very pleased to announce the creation of the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, a new charitable foundation dedicated exclusively to primate conservation. This foundation was created by the late Margot Marsh of La Jolla, California, a long-time supporter of a wide variety of primate research and conservation efforts, who died in May 1995.
I had the great privilege of knowing Margot Marsh for 13 year, and was able to enjoy her company on various trips, including one to Madagascar to see lemurs, and another to Rwanda and Kenya to see mountain gorillas and some of the savannah-dwelling species of Kenya's Masai Mara Reserve. Margot was extremely knowledgeable about primates and human evolution, not to mention many other aspects of biodiversity, and was a great friend and supporter of many of our organisations. We should all be honoured that she saw fit not only to remember us in her will, but also to ensure that the kinds of projects that she supported during her life would continue receiving support in the future.
The Primate Specialist Group was specifically mentioned in Margot's will, as were some of our newsletters, journals and action plans, so she clearly recognised the value of our group and the critical role that it plays in global primate conservation activities. In recognition of this, some of the first projects supported by the Foundation have been aimed at ensuring the unity of publications such as Neotropical Primates. We are extremely grateful to this wonderful friend, and will miss her very much.
The mission of the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation is straightforward: "To contribute to global biodiversity conservation by providing strategically targeted, catalytic support for the conservation of endangered nonhuman primates and their natural habitats."
Project guidelines are as follows, with preference being given to projects that have one or more of the following characteristics: 1) projects focusing on endangered nonhuman primates living in their natural habitats; 2) primate projects being conducted in areas of high overall biodiversity and under great threat (e.g., "threatened hotspots", "megadiversity countries") to ensure maximum multiplier effect for each project; 3) projects being carried out by nationals from the tropical countries to increase local capacity for implementing biodiversity conservation; 4) projects that strengthen international networks of field-based primate specialists and enhance their capacity to be successful conservationists; and 5) projects that result in publication of information on endangered primate species in a format that is useful both to experts and the general public.
Projects should contribute to at least one, and preferably more, of the following themes: 1) enhancement of scientific understanding/knowledge of the target species ecosystem; 2) improved protection of a key species, habitat, or reserved area; 3) demonstration of economic benefit achieved through conservation of a species and its habitat, as compared to loss thereof; 4) increased public awareness or educational impact resulting form the project in question; and 5) improved local capacity to carry out future conservation efforts through training or practical experience obtained through project participation.
The Board of Directors of the Margot Marsh Foundation consists of three members. An Advisory Group has also been created with an additional three members, all of them selected on the basis of their past relationship with, and knowledge of the interests of, Margot Marsh. I currently serve as President of the Board of Directors, and inquiries about how to apply for support from the foundation can be sent to me at the address below.
Russell A. Mittermeier
Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, Fax: 1-703-759-6879
The L.S.B. Leakey Foundation was formed to further research into human origins, behaviour, and survival. Recent priorities have included research into the behaviour, morphology, and ecology of the great apes and other primate species. The grants provided by the Foundation include General Research Grants; Special Research Grants, including a Fellowship for Great Ape Research, and the Franklin Mosher Baldwin Memorial Fellowships.
General Grants: For the advanced pre-doctoral students as well as established scientists. Priority is normally given to the exploratory phases of promising new projects that most closely meet the stated purpose of the Foundation. Although the majority of grants awarded to pre-doctoral students are between US $3,000-$7,000, larger grants especially to senior scientists, are also funded up to US $12,000. If a candidate is unsure that a project proposal falls within the Foundation's goals, he/she should contact the office before applying (a month ahead). The most recent application forms should be used, available from the office. Six copies of the application and attachments should be sent to the Foundation's office by the stated deadline: 15 August or 2 January. Notification of status will be the beginning of December and the beginning of May, respectively.
Special Research Grants: For post-doctoral and senior scientists. Potentially these awards may be renewed for additional years. Applicants should submit the following by the 15 October deadline: a) a two-page statement of the research goals; b) an estimate of total budget requirement and the amount to be requested from the Leakey Foundation; and c) a projected schedule for data collection and analysis. Attach a curriculum vitae. Potential applicants may be asked to submit a full proposal for the 2 January deadline. Notification of status by mail is in the beginning of May.
Fellowship for Great Ape Research: This special award promotes long-term research on the behaviour and ecology of wild populations of great apes, especially if, in addition to the basic scientific goals of the project, the work contributes to the development of testing models of human evolution. Both continuing and new projects are considered. Strong preference is given to post-doctoral applicants prepared to make a long-term commitment to the study site. Usually one fellowship of up to US $20,000 is awarded annually. Successful candidates may apply for a second year by the 2 January deadline.
Memorial Fellowships: This fellowship is awarded to Africans who seek to complete an advanced degree in anthropology at a major institution. The award is limited to a two-year program of advanced training towards an MA, PhD or equivalent. Priority is given to students involved in disciplines related to human evolution. The fellowship is limited to US $8,500/yr for non-tuition expenses only, for a total of US $17,000. Successful candidates are eligible for up to an additional US $3,000. Additional dependant support is not considered. The deadline for application 2 January for the academic year beginning the following fall. Notification in May.
Contact: The L.S.B. Leakey Foundation, 77 Jackson Square, Suite M, Oakland, CA 94607-3750, USA, Tel: 1-510-834-3636, Fax: 1-510-834-3640.
Third Gorilla Workshop. 2-6 April 1997, sponsored by Pittsburgh Zoo, Sheraton Station Square, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Contact: Debbie McGuire or Roseann Gianbro, Pittsburgh Zoo, One Hill Road, Pittsburgh, PA 15206-1178, USA, Tel: 1-412-665-3794, Fax: 1-412-665-3661.
American Society of Primatologists Annual Meeting. 27-30 June 1997, Bahia Hotel, Mission Bay, San Diego, CA, USA.
Contact: Dr Nancy Caine, CSU San Marcos, San Marcos, CA 92096, USA, Tel: 1-619-752-4145, Fax: 1-619-752-4111,
The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. By Noel Rowe, foreward by Jane Goodall and introduction by Russell A. Mittermeier, 1996, 274 pp. Price: hardcover US $79.95; softcover US $59.95 plus $4.95 postage within USA or $10.00 airmail outside USA. Includes 500 colour photographs, 16 colour illustrations, range maps, glossary, popular books, web sites, bibliography and index.
This beautiful book illustrates the diversity of the primate order. Each species is treated separately with at least one photograph or illustration for 234 species of primates. Organised like a field guide, the reader can look at handsome colour photographs and find basic information about each prosimian, monkey and ape, including taxonomy, distinguishing characteristics, physical characteristics, distribution, habitat, diet, life history, locomotion, social structure and behaviour. Following the taxonomy of Colin Groves, this book includes the many new species which have been described in the last 15 year. The book has a strong conservation message and provides the current level of endangerment for each species. Anyone interested in primates should own this book.
In the Introduction, Dr Mittermeier says, one of the great gaps in primatology has been the lack of easy-to-use guides for both the specialist and the layperson. Good field guides and illustrative material about birds have long been available, but someone interested in primates needed to assemble a library of bulky monographs and a large collection of reprints to get some feel for these animals. To fill this gap, several new publications are being produced, among them Conservation International's tropical field guides and now the first truly comprehensive illustrated guide of all primate species by Noel Rowe, which I am very pleased to introduce here.
With this book, Noel Rowe has made a major contribution to our understanding of primates. In addition to his own photographs, obtained in many remote corners of the planet, he has also gathered together a series of top-quality photos by other specialists that cumulatively gives us a real feel for the gestalt and the great diversity of this unique mammalian order. This publication should be of considerable use to professional primatologists and, I think, should do a great deal to stimulate interest among the nature-loving public as well. I encourage all of you involved in conservation efforts to ensure their survival.
Available from: Pogonias Press, 163 Town Lane, East Hampton, NY 11937-5000, USA, Tel: 1-800-296-6310. Mastercard or Visa accepted, or send a check or money order.
Primates: Expedition Field Techniques. By Adrian Barnett, 1995. Expedition Advisory Centre, Royal Geographical Society, London. Price: [sterling] 10.00.
This new addition to the Expedition Field Techniques series of the Royal Geographical Society gives ideas on what primate projects can and cannot be done by expeditions, reviews field techniques for surveys, data recording and indirect information collection, and provides an introduction to the extensive literature. An excellent manual for students beginning field work or planning expeditions. A second edition is planned and the author would be grateful for suggestions and ideas.
Available from : Expedition Advisory Centre, Royal Geographical Society, 1 Kensington Gore, London SW7 2AR, UK, Tel: 44-171-581-2057.
Ape, Man, Apeman: Changing Views Since 1600. By Raymond Corbey & Bert Theunissen, 1995, 411 pp.
The evaluative proceedings of the symposium "Ape, Man, Apeman: Changing Views Since 1600". This volume contains 32 papers contributed by philosophers, primatologists, historians, historians of science, Palaeolithic archaeologists, animal activists, ethicists, literary scholars and anthropologists--many of them prominent. Four areas are covered in this abundantly illustrated
book: 1) Interpreting Apes--views of nonhuman (and human) primates in the West since the Middle Ages; 2) Apish Ancestors--the history of interpretations of human origins and early hominids; 3) Ape Ethnozoology, Apelore, Ape Imagery--the ritual, cultural and symbolic roles of apes and monkeys in non-western as well as western cultures; and 4) Apes and Ethics--moral issues pertaining to human practices vis-a-vis apes and monkeys. The 32 essays show how radically views of apes have started to change recently. As such, they are significant expressions of the continuing and, hopefully, changing history of our dealings with our closest relatives in nature. A fascinating book, and highly recommended.
Contact: Dr R. Corbey, Department of Prehistory, P.O. Box 9515, NL 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands, Fax: 31-71-272928 or 272429.
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Forests for Life. By IUCN and WWF, 1996. Price: [sterling]5.00.
IUCN and WWF have joined forces to publish Forests for Life, a joint forest policy book which assesses global forest status, analyses the causes and implications of forest loss, and proposes a strategy for addressing deforestation and forest degradation.
Forests for Life was launched at the United Nations in Geneva, at the beginning of the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests in March 1996.
The brief took 2 year to produce, and involved specialists in over 50 countries. It is both a practical set of guidelines for the work of the two organisations, and a call to governments, industry and the public to face up to the urgent need for wide-ranging changes to forest management policies throughout the world.
WWF and IUCN have defined a challenge for the world community which summarises their priorities for the remainder of the century: To halt and reverse the loss and degradation of forests and all kinds of woodlands (particularly old-growth forests) by the year 2000.
The five main objectives of the WWF/IUCN forest strategy are as follows:
* Establishment of a network of ecologically representative protected areas.
* Environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial and economically viable forest management outside protected areas.
* Development and implementation of ecologically and socially appropriate forest restoration programmes.
* Reduction of forest damage from global change, including a decrease of pollution below damage thresholds, as measured by critical loads.
* Use of forest goods and services at levels that do not damage the environment, including elimination of wasteful consumption, to attain a level of use of forest goods and services within the regenerative capacity of the forest estate.
Getting forest management right--for people and the environment--is in the interests of everyone. We call on governments, industry and the public to respond positively to the challenge of forest sustainability, and to work with the environmental movement in realising the vision of a world full of high quality forests.
Available from: The Forest Unit, WWF-International, Avenue du Mont Blanc, Gland, Switzerland, CH1196 Tel: 41-22-364-9520, Fax: 41-22-364-8219,
Creatures of the Dark: The Nocturnal Prosimians. Edited by L. Alterman, Gerald A. Doyle & M. Kay Izard, 1995, 586 pp. Price: US$125.00 ($150.00 outside USA and Canada).
This groundbreaking volume features key research that raises the study of prosimian primates to a new level of importance, providing the latest data to enhance our understanding of the sequence of primate evolution.
Contributors discuss past evolutionary aspects of prosimian development, and present conservation efforts for prosimian species that face extinction. International researchers present 36 multidisciplinary studies under the following section headings:
Taxonomy and Phylogeny
Vocal and Chemical Communication
Available from: Plenum Press, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY10013-1578, USA, Tel: 1-800-221-9369, Fax: 1-212-807-1047.
Investigation and Management of Disease in Wild Animals. By Gary A. Wobeser, 1994, 272 pp. Price: US $59.50 ($71.40 outside US and Canada).
Data on methods for studying and managing disease in free-living animals are widely scattered throughout a large body of research. This unique volume draws together, for the first time, information on methods for investigating and managing health problems in free-ranging wild animals. The author thoroughly discusses the advantages and deficiencies of various methods for preventing, controlling, or eradicating disease in these species. He illustrates basic principles and techniques by including a large number of examples from the diverse literature and his own personal experience. This book sheds invaluable light on:
* Integration of our understanding of disease from an ecological perspective
* Application of standard epidemiological methods to wildlife studies
* Management of health problems in endangered, threatened species
* Application of veterinary techniques to wildlife
* Considerable overlap between pest control and disease control methods.
In addition, special chapters describe specific problems in working with free-living animals and criteria for assessing the effectiveness of a disease management program, topics not covered adequately in other texts. An excellent choice for courses in both wildlife biology and veterinary medical programs.
Available from: Plenum Press, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013-1578, USA. Tel: 1-800-221-9369, Fax: 1-212-807-1047.
Current Topics in Primate Vocal Communication. Edited by Elke Zimmermann, John D. Newman, & Uwe Jürgens, 1995, 296 pp. Price: US $89.50 ($107.40 outside USA & Canada).
This is the first compilation of evolutionary-oriented research on the vocal communication abilities of nonhuman primates. Contributions examine a broad array of different primate groups, ranging from the most archaic primates, such as lemurs, loris and bushbabies, to higher primates, including apes and man. In-depth reviews feature previously unpublished material and provide state-of-the-art information on current techniques and the latest developments in primate bioacoustics. Papers address recent findings on social and environmental determinants of nonhuman primate vocal systems from a functional and evolutionary perspective and explore their morphological, neuronal, and cognitive aspects. Fifteen chapters by international experts include discussions on:
* New technical developments for analysing vocalisations
* The diversity of nonhuman primate vocal systems
* The ontogeny of vocal communication
* Evidence for vocal accommodation
* Supralaryngeal and laryngeal adaptations for simple and complex vocal production
* Neuronal adaptations for innate and learned vocal behaviour
* Cognitive prerequisites for, and recent theories on, the evolution of human speech and language.
Available from: Plenum Press, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013-1578, USA. Tel: 1-800-221-9369, Fax: 1-212-807-1047.
Kenya's Indigenous Forests: Status, Management and Conservation. Edited by Peter Waas, 1995, xii + 205pp, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Price: [sterling]14 plus postage.
This book, one in a series on African forests from IUCN, is the most detailed account to date of the status, ecology, associated biodiversity, and environmental services provided by Kenya's indigenous forests. It examines issues of conservation, including population pressure and the options for sustainable forestry. Chapters record and assess local use of forest products, sustained yields and economic value. Perhaps most important of all, the book provides a series of management guidelines for natural forests. Several appendices discuss, amongst other issues, endangered species, national parks, and fire incidence. The book will be invaluable to anyone interested in, or working in, Kenya's forests. It is to be hoped that the work will help focus attention on the critical threats facing many remaining forests within the area.
Available from: IUCN Publications, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK, Tel: 44-1123-277-894.
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Checklist of CITES Species. The new Checklist of CITES Species has been published in the three working languages of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. Its production is supported by the CITES Secretariat, the Joint Nature Conservation Committee of the UK, and the European Commission. It was produced by the World Conservation Monitoring Center (WCMC), Cambridge, as part of its support for CITES. The checklist provides alphabetical listings of the species of fauna and flora on Appendices I, II and III of CITES. It is hoped that these will be an aid to management and scientific authorities, customs officials, and all others involved in enforcing the Convention.
Order from: CITES Secretariat, Case Postale 456, CH-1219 Geneva, Switzerland, Tel: 22-979-9139, Fax. 22-797-3417
International Directory of Primatology. Edited by Larry Jacobson & Raymond Hamel, 3rd Edition, 1996, 385pp. (approx.). Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Price: US $25.00 in USA (US $35 outside USA).
This Directory provides a wealth of information about 300 organisations and 2,800 people active in primate research, education and conservation. Detailed information is provided for primate research centres and laboratories, educational programmes, conservation agencies, field projects, rehabilitation and sanctuary programmes, zoological gardens, international and national societies, foundations and information agencies. The names of key people in these programmes are provided with complete contact information. This edition is enhanced by the addition of more e-mail and World Wide Web addresses. The listing of field projects from the Primate Eye Supplement returns to this edition. The International Primatological Society listing has been expanded and upgraded. The information resources section has been revamped and expanded
This directory will help you answer questions, such as: Which zoos world-wide house bonobos? Who is the director of the Kunming Institute of Zoology (China)? Where can I look for educational or employment opportunities? What field projects are currently being conducted in Brazil and how do I contact the person in charge? How do I subscribe to the American Journal of Primatology? What species are supported by the Institute of Primate Research in Kenya? Who are the studbook keepers for the mandrill? What primate species are held at the Jardin Zoologico de Lisboa? Can I study primatology at the University of Pennsylvania and do they offer field work opportunities? Where do I look for primate information on the World Wide Web?
If you work with primates, or are interested in the field of primatology, you will find the directory to be a handy and useful resource.
Order from: Larry Jacobson, IAP Coordinator, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, 1220 Capital Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299, USA, Tel: 1-608-263-3512, Fax: 1-608-263-4031,
Cheques payable to Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center.
Pan African News: Newsletter of the Japan Committee for the Conservation and Care of Chimpanzees and the Mahale Wildlife Conservation Society. Articles on chimpanzee research and conservation in Africa. Contact: Editorial Office, Pan Africa News, Department of Zoology, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-01, Japan, Tel: 8175-753-4085, Fax: 81-75-753-4115,
Digit News: Newsletter of The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund. Contact: Clare Richardson, Executive Director, Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund, 800 Cherokee Avenue, SE, Atlanta, GA 30315-1440, USA, Tel: 1-800-851-0203
Digit News: Newsletter of the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund UK. Contact: Ian Redmund, Editor, Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund Europe. 110 Gloucester Avenue, London NW1 8JA, UK, Tel: 44-171-483-2681, Fax: 44-171-722-0928,
Gorilla Conservation News: Newsletter of the Gorilla Advisory Committee for the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. Provides an annual up-date on gorilla field conservation projects and field surveys. Contact: Kelly Stewart, Editor, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA, Tel: 1-916-752-0670, Fax: 1-916-8885,
Gorilla Journal: Journal of Berggorilla & Regenwald Direkthilfe. Presents articles primarily on gorilla and rainforest conservation. Contact: Angela Meder, Editor, Augustenstr. 122, 70197 Stuttgart, Germany, Fax: 49-711-6159919,
Gorilla Gazette: Published by the great apes staff of the Columbus Zoo. Provides information on great ape conservation efforts, both in captivity and in the wild. Contact: Beth Armstrong or Charlene Jendry, Co-editors, Columbus Zoo, 9990 Riverside Drive, P.O. Box 400, Powell, OH 43065-0400, USA, Tel: 1-614-645-3400, Fax: 1-614-645-6345.
Primate Conservation--The Journal of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
After a number of years of editorial and financial difficulties, three issues of Primate Conservation have been published: Number 12-13 (1991/1992), 42 pp.; Number 14-15 (1993/1994), 66 pp.; and Number 16 (1995), 74 pp. Number 14-15 includes the proceedings of a symposium on population viability analyses for primates, held during the XV Congress of the International Primatological Society in Bali, Indonesia, August 1994. This special section was guest-edited by C. Lacy. Following an introduction and discussion of the PVA approach by Lacy (What is population (and habitat) viability analysis?) several case studies are presented, including one for the Tana River crested mangabey Cercocebus galeritus galeritus (M. F. Kinnaird & T. O'Brien). As pointed out in the editorial (R. Mittermeier & A. Rylands), this focus on using current technologies to assess the long-term status of primates, and to develop the most appropriate approaches to conserving them in the wild, is one that PSG hopes to use much more in the future. One of the other articles in this number deals with the status and conservation of chimpanzees and gorillas in Cameroon (J. Prescott et al.).
Number 16 has three articles from Africa: a review of the status of the pygmy chimpanzee Pan paniscus (A. Kortlandt), with some further observations on this species by R.L. Sussman, and a report on the taxonomic status of the gorillas Gorilla gorilla of the Bwindi-Impenetrable Forest, Uganda (E. Sarmiento, T. Butynski & J. Kalina).
Available for US $15/issue (including postage and packing) from Conservation International, Department of Conservation Biology, 1015 Eighteenth Street, NW, Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20036, USA, Tel: 1-202-429-5660, Fax: 1-202-887-0192.
Primate Conservation--A Call for Papers
The IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group journal Primate Conservation publishes articles on the conservation, ecology and captive breeding of primates. Three issues were published recently (see article above). Number 17 (1996) is in preparation, but to date no manuscripts have been submitted for African primates. The editors, Anthony B. Rylands and Russell Mittermeier, would appreciate receiving articles (original and one xerox copy) of up to 30 pages (double-spaced), including references, for inclusion in this next issue. High quality photographs are welcomed. Please send your contributions to Anthony B. Rylands, Editor--Primate Conservation, c/o Conservation International do Brazil, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Tel/Fax: +55-31-441-1795
Primates--The Journal of the Japan Monkey Centre
Primates is an international journal of primatology which publishes original papers that contribute to the development of the scientific study of primates embracing work in all fields of investigation, such as morphology, physiology, psychology, behaviour, ecology, sociology, systematics, evolution and laboratory primate medicine. Short communications, research reports, notes, review articles and other information are also published. It is quarterly; four numbers comprising each volume. Contributors are advised to read the "Information for Contributors" printed inside the back cover of any issue after 36. The Editor-in-Chief is Yukimari Sugiyama. Contact: Editorial Office, Japan Monkey Centre, Inuyama, Aichi 484, Japan, Tel: 81-568-61-2327, Fax: 81-568-62-6823
Ball, H.L. 1995. Primate Behavior: An Exercise Workbook by J.D. Paterson, 1992. Waveland Press, Inc., Prospect Heights, Illinois. Primate Eye 57: 37-39.
Brandon-Jones, C. 1995. Lemurs of Madagascar. Conservation International Tropical Field Guide Series, No. 1 by R.A. Mittermeier et al., 1994, Conservation International, Washington, DC, 356 pp. Primate Eye 57:39-41.
Brandon-Jones, D. 1996. Colobine Moneys: Their Ecology, Behaviour and Evolution by A.G. Davies & J. Oates, eds. 1994. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Primate Eye 58: 27-31.
Froehlich, J.W. 1996. Primate species: The irreversible units in the evolution of our mammalian divergence--a review of Species, Species Concepts, and Primate Evolution by W.H. Kimbel, et al., eds. 1993. Plenum, New York. American Journal of Primatology 38: 271-279.
Gibson, K.R. 1995. The use of Tools by Human and Non-human Primates by A. Berthelet et al. eds., 1993, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 424 pp. International Journal of Primatology 16: 1025-1027.
Lee, P.C. 1995. Introduction to Primate Behaviour by N.C. Collinge, ed. 1993. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., Dubuque, 248 pp. Primate Eye 57: 34.
Struhsaker, T.T. 1995. Colobine Monkeys. Their Ecology, Behaviour and Evolution by A.G. Davies & J. Oates, eds. 1994. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. International Journal of Primatology 16:1035-1037.
Abadie, M. & D. Strange. 1996. Taxon Advisory Groups: Keeper involvement in the Old World monkey TAG. Proceedings of the National Conference of the AAZK 22: 67-71.
Alterman, L. 1995. Toxins and toothcombs: Potential allospecific chemical defences in Nycticebus and Perodicticus. In: Creatures of the Dark: The Nocturnal Prosimians. L. Alterman, et al., eds. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 413-424.
Anonymous. 1996. Directory of graduate programs in primatology and primate research (1996). Laboratory Primate Newsletter 35: 21-30.
Anonymous. 1996. Mountain gorillas still threatened. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 35: 16.
Anonymous. 1995. Gorillas in Rwanda. Gorilla Journal 11: 10.
Anonymous. 1996. Bwindi's gorillas in the midst of taxonomic dispute. African Wildlife Update 5: 7.
Appleton, C.C. & C. Brain. 1995. Gastro-intestinal parasites of Papio cynocephalus ursinus living in the central Namib Desert, Namibia. African Journal of Ecology 33: 257-265.
Bakuneeta, C., K. Johnson, R. Plumptree & V. Reynolds. 1995. Human uses of tree species whose seeds are dispersed by chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 33: 276-278.
Bauer, K. & A. Schreiber. 1995. Tricky relatives: Consecutive dichotomous speciation of gorilla, chimpanzee and hominids testified by immunological determinants. Naturwissen-schaften 82: 517-520.
Bearder, S.K., P.E. Honess & L. Ambrose. 1995. Species diversity among galagos with special reference to mate recognition. In: Creatures of the Dark: The Nocturnal Prosimians. L. Alterman et al., eds. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 331-352.
Bearder, S. 1995. Suntailed Guenon Project. Primate Eye 57: 23.
Blake, S., E. Rogers, J.M. Fay, M. Ngangoue & G. Ebeke. 1995. Swamp gorillas in northern Congo. African Journal of Ecology 33: 285-290.
Borowik, O.A. 1995. Coding chromosomal data for phylogenetic analysis: Phylogenetic resolution of the Pan-Homo-Gorilla trichotomy. Systemic Biology 44: 563-570.
Brown, C.H. & M.P. Cannito. 1995. Modes of vocal variation in Sykes' monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis). Journal of Comparative Psychology 109: 398-415.
Butynski, T. 1995. Primates and hydropower: The forests of Kenya's lower Tana River. Swara 18: 28-30.
Butynski, T. & E. Sarmiento. 1995. On the brink: The gorillas of Mount Tshiaberimu, Zaire. Kenya Past and Present 27: 17-20.
Butynski, T., E. Sarmiento & J. Kalina. 1996. Study finds fewer mountain gorillas. Gorilla Gazette 10: 2.
Butynski, T., E. Sarmiento & J. Kalina. 1996. More on the Bwindi gorillas. African Wildlife Update 5: 6.
Casperd, J.M. 1996. Current primate field studies. Primate Eye 58: 1-28.
Chapman, C.A. 1995. Primate seed dispersal: Coevolution and conservation implications. Evolutionary Anthropology 4: 74-82.
Chapman, C.A. & L.J. Chapman. 1996. Mixed-species primate groups in the Kibale Forest: Ecological constraints on association. International Journal of Primatology 17: 31-50.
Collins, A. 1995. Olive baboons in Gombe. Jane Goodall Institute-USA World Report Spring: 7.
Cowlishaw, G. & S.M. O'Connell. 1996. Male-male competition, paternity certainty and copulation calls in female baboons. Animal Behaviour 51: 235-238.
Dutrillaux, B. & Y. Rumpler. 1995. Phylogenetic relations among Prosimii with special reference to Lemuriformes and Malagasy nocturnals. In: Creatures of the Dark: The Nocturnal Prosimians, L. Alterman et al., eds. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 141-150.
Forthman, D.L., T.R. Chang & S.D. Elder. 1994. Behavioural comparison of captive drills (Papio leucophaeus) and mandrills (Papio sphinx). In: Current Primatology. Vol. II: Social Development, Learning and Behaviour, J.J. Roeder et al., eds. Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, pp. 193-198.
Goodall, J. 1995. Do orphan chimps matter? Jane Goodall Institute-USA World Report Spring: 9.
Harcourt, A.H. 1995. Rights for apes? Primate Eye 57: 32-33.
Harcourt, A.H. 1996. Is the gorilla a threatened species? How should we judge? Biological Conservation 75: 165-176.
Henzi, S.P. 1996. Copulation calls and paternity in chacma baboons. Animal Behaviour 51: 233-234.
Hohmann, G. & B. Fruth. 1995. Loud calls in great apes: Sex differences and social correlates. In: Current Topics in Primate Vocal Communication, E. Zimmermann et al., eds. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 161-184.
Jolly, A. 1995. The evolution of primate behavior. In: Exploring Evolutionary Biology: Readings from American Scientist, M. Slatkin, ed. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA, pp. 288-297.
Kappeler, P.M. 1995. Life history variation among nocturnal prosimians. In: Creatures of the Dark: The Nocturnal Prosimians, L. Alterman et al., eds. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 75-92.
Karlowski, U. 1995. On the situation in Uganda. Gorilla Journal 11: 12.
Marchant, L.F. 1996. The great apes revisited. Current Anthropology 37: 142-147.
Martin, R.D. 1995. Prosimians: From obscurity to extinction? In: Creatures of the Dark: The Nocturnal Prosimians, L. Alterman et al., eds. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 535-563.
Martin, R.D., L.A. Willner & A. Dettling. 1994. The evolution of sexual size dimorphism in primates. In: The Differences Between the Sexes, R.V. Short & E. Balaban, eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 159-200.
Mate, C., M. Colell & M. Escobar. 1995. Preliminary observations on the ecology of forest Cercopithecidae in the Lokofe-Ikomaloki region (Ikela, Zaire). Folia Primatologica 64: 196-200.
Meder, A. 1995. Four mountain gorillas found dead in Zaire. Gorilla Journal 11: 10.
Meder, A. 1995. Maheshe's tragic end. Gorilla Journal 11: 9-10.
Meder, A. 1995. Rain forests and gorillas in Gabon. Gorilla Journal 11: 13-15.
Messner, E.J. & R.W. Wrangham. 1996. In vitro testing of the biological activity of Rubia cordifolia leaves on primate Strongyloides species. Primates 37: 105-108.
Mestel, R. 1995. Monkey `murderers' may be falsely accused. New Scientist 147: 17.
Mitani, J.C., J. Gros-Louis & J.H. Manson. 1996. Number of males in primate groups: Comparative tests of competing hypotheses. American Journal of Primatology 38: 315-332.
Morland, H.S. 1994. Conservation in African rain forests: Developing priorities, plans and projects. AZA Annual Conference Proceedings 1994: 113-118.
Muller, M.N., E. Mpongo, C.B. Stanford & C. Boehm. 1995. A note on scavenging by chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica 65: 43-47.
Patch, S. 1995. Chimpanzees of Mitumba. Jane Goodall Institute-USA World Report Spring: 5.
Paul, A., J. Kuester & J. Amemann. 1996. The sociobiology of male-infant interactions in Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus. Animal Behaviour 51: 155-170.
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African Primates publishes information relevant to the conservation of non-human primates and their ecosystems in Africa. Its aim is to facilitate the rapid exchange of information and ideas among primatologists and conservationists working with primates in Africa. It is hoped that this newsletter will enhance the conservation of African primates:
* by increasing interest in their survival,
* by alerting people to situations where primate species and populations are under threat, and
* by providing a forum for useful debate on some of the more pressing, controversial, and sensitive issues that impact the conservation of these primates.
The success of this newsletter depends largely upon the willingness of those people involved with primate conservation in Africa to provide relevant information on research findings, field survey results, advances in field and laboratory techniques, field action alerts, book reviews, events, funding possibilities and recent publications (including reports and theses). African Primates also announces letter-writing campaigns and other activities which might benefit from the support of its readership.
African Primates is published bi-annually and distributed free-of-charge to all interested persons. More than 3,000 copies were made of the last issue. The mailing list holds more than 1,200 addresses.
African Primates is on Primate Info Net (PIN). Go to: http://www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/newslett.html
Contributors should carefully study the most recent issues of African Primates for stylistic conventions. The following guidelines are recommended for submissions:
* Manuscripts (not to exceed 15 pages) should be in English or French, double-spaced, with wide margins all around. All articles must include an abstract.
* For authors with word-processing capabilities, and where the contribution is greater than three pages, please also include a diskette (high density only) for PC compatible text-editors (MS-Word 6.0a or older, MS-Word for DOS versions 3.0 up to 6.0,, WordPerfect for DOS version 5 or older, WordPerfect for Windows 5.5 or older, Microsoft Write for Windows).
* Use metric units only.
* Tables, figures and photographs are encouraged. All require concise captions listed on a separate sheet. Most "articles" should be accompanied by a map that shows all the place names mentioned in the text.
* Figures, such as maps and sketches, should be drafted in black ink, lettered clearly to allow for reduction, and should be `camera-ready'. Please follow the style in this issue of African Primates.
* Black-and-white prints are best but colour slides can also be used for black-and-white reproductions. All photographs must be sharply focused and of high quality. Each photograph or slide should be labelled with a photographer credit.
* `References' should be an alphabetical list of only those publications cited in the text. They should conform to the format used in previous issues of African Primates.
* Each author should provide name, affiliation, address, fax number and e-mail address (if available).
Please send contributions to: Thomas M. Butynski, Senior Editor, African Primates, Zoo Atlanta, Africa Biodiversity Conservation Program, P.O. Box 24434, Nairobi, Kenya, Tel: 254-2-745374 or 254-2-884369, Fax: 254-2-890615
Front cover illustration: Mountain gorilla, by Steven Nash. Gorilla gorilla beringei is a critically endangered subspecies endemic to the Virunga Volcanoes. With approximately 325 individuals remaining, it is one of Africa's rarest subspecies of primate. See article on p. 28 & 30.
Logo: De Brazza's monkey Cercopithecus neglectus. By Steven Nash.
The views expressed in African Primates are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Zoo Atlanta, the National Museums of Kenya, Conservation International, IUCN/SSC, nor the Primate Specialist Group.
African Primates is produced in collaboration with Conservation International, 1015 Eighteen Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC 20036, USA, and with the IUCN Eastern Africa Regional Office, P.O. Box 68200, Nairobi, Kenya.
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